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THE HISTORY OF ASPARTAME: TABLE OF CONTENTS

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I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

II. A BRIEF HISTORY OF SUGAR-SUBSTITUTES . . . . . 3

III. FDA ANNOUNCES PROPOSED BAN ON SACCHARINE . . . 7

IV. BACKGROUND ON ASPARTAME . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

V. FDA APPROVAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

VI. THE FIRST OBSTACLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

VII. ANALYZING THE DATA: THE 52-WEEK TOXICITY STUDY IN THE INFANT MONKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

VIII. ANALYZING THE DATA: THE 46-WEEK HAMSTER STUDY . 20

IX. TASK FORCE'S CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 22

X. SENATOR METZENBAUM'S 1977 REPORT . . . . . . . 24

XI. THE BOARD'S INQUIRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

XII. THE COMMISSIONER'S REVERSAL. . . . . . . . . . 28

XIII.FDA CONTINUES APPROVING ASPARTAME FOR ADDITIONAL USES DESPITE PRESSURE FROM CONSUMER GROUPS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

XIV. THE APPROVAL PROCESS CONTINUES AND THE SOFT-DRINK INDUSTRY ADJUSTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

XV. ASPARTAME'S MARKET SHARE OF THE LOW CALORIE SWEETENER INDUSTRY EXPLODES . . . . . . . . . 33

XVI. SEARLE'S BUSINESS (AS AFFECTED BY THE MARKET FOR ASPARTAME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

XVII. SENATOR METZENBAUM'S 1985 BILL . . . . . . . . 38

XVIII.COMMUNITY NUTRITION INSTITUTE FILES SUIT . . .42

XIX. FDA INVITES CONSUMER PARTICIPATION . . . . . . 46

THE HISTORY OF ASPARTAME: TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED)

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XX. THE GENERAL ACCOUNTING OFFICE'S REPORT . . . . 47

XXI. THE INTERNET'S ROLE IN THE ASPARTAME CONTROVERSY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

XXII. CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57