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Research Bibliography

(for paper researched by Christine Kirk, Jan - Apr 2002)

This bibliography includes documents and websites/webpages reviewed in conducting research for my 3L paper, “Bioterrorism and the Food and Drug Administration: H.R. 3448, Related Legislation, and the FDA’s Expanding Role in Preventing and Responding to Biological Attack.” In researching this paper, I reviewed a large number of documents related to bioterrorism, the role of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in preventing and responding to bioterrorism, and related topics. Because my paper was narrowly focused on HR3448, I used only a fraction of the useful information I found in the paper itself, and therefore put together this bibliography in hopes that it might be helpful to someone doing similar research in the future. It is not exhaustive but does represent a wide sample of available information in this area.

The bibliography includes law review and professional journal articles; useful websites; proposed and existing laws, regulations, and official guidance; government reports and other documents; research institution reports; media articles; and other documents.

Some Relevant and Useful Websites

Some Relevant General Government Websites

• U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) at www.fda.gov.

• U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) at www.cdc.gov.

• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) at www.hhs.gov.

• Government Food Safety website at www.foodsafety.gov

(Cooperative effort by U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Agriculture, Environmental Protection Agency, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

d National Food Safety Programs page at http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/fs-toc.html

• General Accounting Office at www.gao.gov

(Federal reports on many topics--includes terrorism report link)

• House Committee on Energy and Commerce website at http://energycommerce.house.gov/.

• Office of Homeland Security website at http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/.

• THOMAS: Legislative Information on the Internet [hereinafter “THOMAS”], a service of the Library of Congress, at www.thomas.loc.gov.Some Government Counter-terrorism and Disaster Prevention Websites

• The Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies

• Critical Infrastructure Assurance Office at www.ciao.gov

(Per the webwebsite, the CIAO was established in 1996 to “address the vulnerabilities created in the new information age,” and to, “formulate a comprehensive national strategy for protecting the infrastructures we all depend on from physical and ‘cyber’ threats.”)

• National Infrastructure Protection Center at www.nipc.gov

(Per the webwebsite, the NIPC “serves as a national critical infrastructure threat assessment, warning, vulnerability, and law enforcement investigation and response entity.”)

Some General Non-government Counter-terrorism and Disaster Prevention Websites

• Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS) at the Monterey Institute of International Studies at www.cns.miis.edu.

• Twenty-first (21st ) Century Disasters at www.globaldisaster.org

(includes pages specific to nuclear-biological-chemical terrorism and cyberterrorism)

• Federation of American Scientists at www.fas.org

(includes pages specific to terrorism)

Some Government and Non-government Bioterrorism-specific Websites

• Center for Nonproliferation Studies (CNS)’s “Chemical and Biological Weapons Resource Page” at http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/response.htm, last visited Apr. 25, 2002.

• DHHS’s “Anthrax and Biological Incidents: Preparedness and Response” page at http://www.hhs.gov/hottopics/healing/biological.html, last revised Apr. 1, 2002.

• FDA’s general “Bioterrorism” information page at http://www.fda/gov/oc/opacom/hottopics/bioterrorism.html (last viewed Apr. 24, 2002; last updated Mar. 8, 2002).

• FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)’s “Countering Bioterrorism” page at http://www.fda.gov/cber/cntrbio/cntrbio.htm, last updated Mar. 29, 2002.

• FDA’s Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)’s “Food Safety and Terrorism” page at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fsterr.html.

• www.FoodSafety.gov’s “Countering Bioterrorism and Other Threats to the Food Supply” page at http://www.foodsafety.gov/~fsg/bioterr.html, last updated Jan. 9, 2002.

• CDC’s “Public Health Emergency Preparedness & Response” page at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/, last updated Apr. 10, 2002.

• Hardin Library for the Health Sciences at the University of Iowa’s “Hardin MD Focus Page: Bioterrorism/Biological Warfare” page at http://www.lib.uiowa.edu/hardin/md/bioterrorism.html.

• Johns Hopkins University’s Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies website at http://www.hopkins-biodefense.org/index.html.

• MEDLINE’s “MEDLINEplus: Biological and Chemical Weapons” page at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/biologicalandchemicalweapons.html.

• Saint Louis University’s Center for the Study of Bioterrorism and Emerging Infections website at http://bioterrorism.slu.edu/.

• Twenty-first (21st ) Century Disasters: Nuclear-Biological-Chemical Terrorism Resource Center at www.globaldisaster.org/nbcrescen.shtml

(links to relevant articles and websites)

Government and Non-government Cyberterrorism-specific Websites

• Carnegie Mellon Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) Coordination Center) at www.cert.org

(key website for cybersecurity--provides reports, alerts, recommendations)

• Counterpane Internet Security at www.counterpane.com

(private company with large archive of reports of cybersecurity breaches and attacks)

• Federation of American Scientists’ Intelligence Resource Program: CyberSecurity Intelligence Threat Assessments at http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/cyber/index.html

• The Institute for Security Technology Studies at Dartmouth College at http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/

• Institute for the Advanced Study of Information Warfare at www.psycom.net/iwar.1.html

(this website provides a large number of useful links to related articles and websites)

• Twenty-first (21st ) Century Disasters: Cyberterrorism Resource Center at www.globaldisaster.org/cyberterrorrescen.shtml

(links to relevant articles and websites)Some Senators’ and Representatives’ websites and pages with bioterrorism information:

• Congressman Gary Miller at http://www.house.gov/garymiller/

(as of April 24, 2002, this website included relevant “Information Links & Biological Threat Fact Sheets”)

• Congressman W.J. “Billy” Tauzin at http://www.house.gov/tauzin

(Representative Tauzin is a House sponsor of H.R. 3448)

Some Relevant FDA Rules/Guidelines/Notices:

• FDA Proposed Rule, New Drug and Biological Drug Products; Evidence Needed to Demonstrate Efficacy of New Drugs for Use Against Lethal or Permanently Disabling Toxic Substances When Efficacy Studies in Humans Ethically Cannot Be Conducted, 64 Fed. Reg. 53960 (proposed Oct. 5, 1999), Docket No. 98N-0237, OC 9818.

• FDA Notice, Prescription Drug Products; Doxycycline and Penicillin G Procaine Administration for Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure), Docket No. 01N-0494.

• FDA Notice, Food Security Guidance; Availability, Jan. 9, 2002, Docket No. 01D-0583, Federal Register Vol. 67, No. 6, Pages 1224-25.

• FDA Guidance for Industry, Food Producers, Processors, Transporters, and Retailers: Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance, Jan. 9, 2002.

• FDA Guidance for Industry, Importers and Filers: Food Security Preventive Measures Guidance, Jan. 9, 2002.

• FDA Final Guidance, Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Assessment of Donor Suitability and Blood and Blood Product Safety in Cases of Possible Exposure to Anthrax, Oct. 2001.

Some Relevant Bills and Laws

Bills

• Bioterrorism Preparedness Act of 2001, H.R. 3448, 107th Congress (2001).

• Bioterrorism Preparedness Act of 2001, S. 1765, 107th Congress (2001).

Laws

• Department of Defense and Emergency Supplemental Appropriation for Recovery From and Response to Terrorist Attacks on the United States Act, 2002, Pub. L. No. 107-117, 115 Stat. 2230.

• Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

• Federal Anti-Tampering Act.

• Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism (USA PATRIOT ACT) Act of 2001, Pub. L. No. 107-56, 115 Stat. 272.

Legislative History/Bill Status Updates

• Bill Summary & Status File for H.R. 3448, from THOMAS, reviewed periodically and last viewed Apr. 29, 2002.

• Bill Summary & Status File for S. 1765 (Introduced in Senate), from THOMAS, reviewed periodically and last viewed Apr. 24, 2002.

Government-Produced or -Sponsored Reports

• GAO Report, Anthrax Vaccine: Changes to the Manufacturing Process, General Accounting Office, Doc. No. GAO-02-181-T, Oct. 23, 2001, available at http://www.gao.gov/terrorism.html.

• GAO Report, Combating Terrorism: Considerations for Investing Resources in Chemical and Biological Preparedness, General Accounting Office, Doc. No. GAO-02-162T, Oct. 17, 2001, available at http://www.gao.gov/terrorism.html.

• GAO Report, Food Safety: Agencies Should Further Test Plans for Responding to Deliberate Contamination, Doc. No. RCED-00-3, Oct. 27, 1999, available at http://www.gao.gov/terrorism.html.

• Food Safety Progress Report: Fiscal Year 2000, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Aug. 2000, available at http://www.cfsan.fa.gov/~dms/fsirp00.html.

• NSTC Report, Global Microbial Threats in the 1990s, NSTC Committee on International Science, available at http://www.ostp.gov/CISET/html/toc.html, last viewed Jan. 30, 2002.

• Workshop Report, Medical Defense Against Bioterrorism: Efficacy and Safety of New Products Workshop, Organized by FDA’s Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in Cooperation with the Department of Defense, held Dec. 6-7, 2000, available at http://www.fda.gov/cber/meetings/bioterr120600.htm (last updated Jan. 12, 2001) (a workshop agenda and outlines of many presentations are available).

• Report Abstract, Critical Infrastructure Protection: Significant Challenges in Developing Analysis, Warning, and Response Capabilities, GAO-01-1005T, U.S. General Accounting Office, Jul. 25, 2001, available at www.gao.gov.

Government-Produced Workplans, Press Releases, Fact Sheets, Fact Pages, etc.

• Consumer Alert, Offers to Treat Biological Threats: What You Need to Know, Federal Trade Commission (in cooperation with CDC and FDA), Oct. 2001, available at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/bioalrt.htm.

• Consumer Information, Dietary Supplements Claiming to Prevent or Treat Anthrax, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, last updated Nov. 8, 2001, available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/danthrx.html.

• FDA FY 2003 Annual Performance Plan: FY 2002 Revised Final Performance Plan: FY 2001 Annual Performance Report, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Feb. 2002, available at http://www.fda.gov/ope/FY03plan/default.htm.

• Work Plan Fiscal Year 2000, Department of Health and Human Services Documents, Practising Law Institute, Corporate Law and Practice Course Handbook Series, PLI Order No. B0-00IU, May 1-2, 2000 (includes brief description of FDA’s bioterrorism research program).

• “DHHS Requests Over $104 Million for FDA to Combat Bioterrorism,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Office of Public Affairs (Oct. 31, 2001) available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/bioterrorism/budget.html.

• Fact Sheet, HHS Initiative Prepares for Possible Bioterrorism Threat, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Aug. 16, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/01fsbioterrorism.html, last revised Oct. 6, 2001.

• Fact Sheet, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA and the Drug Development Process: How the Agency Ensures that Drugs are Safe and Effective, Pub. No. FS 02-1, Feb. 2002, available at www.fda.gov.

• Fact Sheet, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA Protects the Public’s Health; Ranks High in Public Trust, Feb. 2002, available at www.fda.gov.

• Fact Sheet, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, FDA’s Global Shield for American Consumer: The Agency Acts World-Wide to Ensure High Quality Imports, Pub. No. FS 01-12, revised Feb. 2002, available at www.fda.gov.

• Fact Sheet, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Human Subject Protection: FDA’s Role in a System of Safeguards, Pub. No. FS 01-11, revised Feb. 2002, available at www.fda.gov.

• Fact Sheet, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Keeping the Nation’s Food Supply Safe: FDA’s Big Job Done Well, revised Feb. 2002, available at www.fda.gov.

• Fact Page, Anthrax, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Biologic Evaluation and Research, last updated Apr. 8, 2002, available at http://www.fda.gov/cber/vaccine/anthrax.htm.

• Fact Page, Countering Bioterrorism Initiative, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, last updated Apr. 17, 2002, available at http://www.fda.gov/cber/cntrbio/cntrbio.htm.

• Fact Page, Countering Bioterrorism: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs), U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Biologic Evaluation and Research, last updated Oct. 11, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/cber/faq/cntrbfaq.htm.

• Fact Page, Frequently Asked Consumer Questions About Food Safety and Terrorism, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, last updated Jan. 16, 2002, available at http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fsterrqa.html.

• Fact Page, Hiring Initiative for Countering Bioterrorism, U.S. Food and Drug Administration: Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, last updated Dec. 14, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/cber/inside/btihire.htm.

• Fact Page, Leveraging at FDA: Creating Solutions Through Partnerships with Stakeholders, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, last visited Apr. 25, 2002, available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/leveraging/activities.html and at http://www.fda.gov/oc/leveraging/default.htm.

• Mission Statement, “FDA’s Mission,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, last updated Oct. 19, 1998, available at http://www.fda.gov/opacom/morechoics/mission.html.

• Organization Charts, “FDA Organization Charts,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, last updated Apr. 9, 2002, available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/orgcharts/orgchart.html (organizational charts for various offices and centers of FDA).

• Press Release, Defending Against Biological Terrorism, Office of the Press Secretary, U.S. White House, Feb. 5, 2002, available at http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020205-1.html.

• Press Release, HHS Accelerates Bioterrorism Research: New Programs Expedite Ideas from Concerned Scientists, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Dec. 6, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/20011206a.html.

• Press Release, HHS Initiative Prepares for Possible Bioterrorism Threat, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, May 18, 2000, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2000pres/20000518.html.

• Press Release, HHS May Acquire More Than 75 Million Doses of Smallpox Vaccine: Agreement Would Require That Vaccine Being Proven Safe and Effective, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Mar. 29, 2002, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2002pres/20020329.html.

• Press Release, Secretary Thompson Testifies on HHS Readiness and Role of Vaccine Research and Development, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Oct. 23, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/press/2001pres/20011023.html.

• Summary Report for Lawmakers and Public, “FDA’s Growing Responsibilities for the Year 2001 and Beyond,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, last updated June 13, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/budgetbro/budgetbro.html.

• “Years and Session Dates of the U.S. Congress,” U.S. Government Printing Office, available at www.access.gpo.gov.

Some Research Institute and Similar Entity Reports, Articles, etc.

• Michael A. Vatis, Cyber Attacks During The War on Terrorism: A Predictive Analysis, Institute for Security Technology Studies at Dartmouth College, Sep. 22, 2001, available at http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/.

• Tara O’Toole, M.D., Summary of Lessons Learned: Shining Light on Dark Winter, The Johns Hopkins University Center for Civilian Biodefense Studies (2001), available at http://www.hopkins-biodefense.org/lessons.html.

• Funding Chart, Federal Funding to Combat Terrorism, Including Defense Against Weapons of Mass Destruction: FY 1998-2001, Center for Nonproliferation Studies at Monterey Institute of Intenational Studies, last updated Jul. 2000, available at http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/terfund.htm.

• Organizational Chart, United States Response to CBW Terrorism and Domestic Preparedness: Organizational Chart for Terrorism Response, Center for Nonproliferation Studies at Monterey Institute of Intenational Studies, last updated Oct. 21, 2001, available at http://cns.miis.edu/research/cbw/domestic.htm.

• Overview of Attack Trends, CERT® Coordination Center, available at http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf.PDF (last viewed Apr. 17, 2002) (addresses current trends in cyberattacks, including speed of attack, sophistication of tools, discovery and exploitation of vulnerabilities and permeability of firewalls).

• Timothy Shimeall et al., Countering cyber war, NATO Review, Winter 2001/2002, available at http://www.cert.org/archive/pdf/counter_cyberwar.pdf.

• Phil Williams et al., Intelligence Analysis for Internet Security, CERT® Coordination Center, available at http://www.cert.org/archive/html/Analysis10a.html (last viewed Apr. 17, 2002).

• International Coordination for Cyber Crime and Terrorism in the 21st Century, available at http://www.cert.org/reports/stanford_whitepaper_V6.pdf (last viewed Apr. 17, 2002).

Casebooks and Treatises

• Peter Barton Hutt & Richard A. Merrill, Food and Drug Law: Cases and Materials (2d ed.) (1991).

Some Relevant Law Review and Other Professional Journal Articles

• Special Issue: Symposium on Medical and Public Health Responses to Bioterrorism, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, No. 4, July-August 1999, available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no4/contents.htm.

• George J. Annas, The Man on the Moon, Immortality, and other Millennial Myths: The Prospects and Perils of Human Genetic Engineering, 49 Emory Law Journal (2000) (briefly addresses the potential use of genetically engineered organisms in bioterrorism--see p. 7 and fn. 66).

• LTC George Christopher, et al., Biological Warfare: A Historical Perspective, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 278, No. 5, Aug. 6, 1997.

• Thomas B. Cole, When a Bioweapon Strikes, Who Will Be in Charge?, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 284, No. 6, Aug. 23/30, 2000.

• Heather A. Dagen, Bioterrorism: Perfectly Legal, 49 Catholic University Law Review 535 (2000).

• Caroline Smith DeWaal, Food Safety Inspections: A Call for Rational Reorganization, 54 Food and Drug Law Journal 453 (1999).

• James R. Feguson, Biological Weapons and US Law, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 278, No. 5, Aug. 6, 1997.

• Julie Louise Gerberding et al., Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response: Clinicians and Public Health Agencies as Essential Partners, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 287, No. 7, Feb. 20, 2002.

• Donna M. Gitter, International Conflicts Over Patenting Human DNA Sequences in the United States and the European Union: An Argument for Compulsory Licensing and a Fair-Use Exemption, 76 New York University Law Review 1623 (2001) (briefly references the potential applicability of compulsory licensing and/or government “march-in” rights in combatting bioterrorist attacks--see fn. 381).

• T.W. Hennessy et al., A national outbrak of salmonella enteritidis infections from ice cream, New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 334: 1281-86 (1996).

• Willian E. Keene, Lesson From Investigations of Foodborne Disease Outbreaks, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 281, No. 19, May 19, 1999.

• Barry Kellman, Biological Terrorism: Legal Measures for Preventing Catastrophe, 24 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 417 (2001).

• Barry Kellman, Catastrophic Terrorism--Thinking Fearfully, Acting Legally, 20 Michigan Journal of International Law 537 (1999).

• Barry Kellman, An International Criminal Law Approach to Bioterrorism, 25 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 721 (2002).

• Barry Kellman and Stephen Dycus, International Security, 34 International Lawyer 799 (2000).

• Ali S. Khan et al., Precautions Against Biological and Chemical Terrorism Directed at Food and Water Supplies, Public Health Reports, Vol. 116, pp. 3-14, Jan.-Feb., 2001.

• Ali S. Khan et al., Public-health Preparedness for Biological Terrorism in the USA, The Lancet 356 (9236): 1179-1182, sep. 30, 2000.

• Shellie A. Kolavic et al., An Outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae Type 2 Among Laboratory Workers Due to Intentional Food Contamination, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 278, No. 5, Aug. 6, 1997.

• Mark G. Kortepeter & Gerald W. Parker, Potential Biological Weapons Threats, in Special Issue: Symposium on Medical and Public Health Responses to Bioterrorism, Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 5, No. 4, July-August 1999, available at http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no4/kortepeter.htm.

• Christina M. Markus, FDA Fights Flexibly: Agency must ensure that our best biotech can battle bioterrorism, Legal Times, Vol. 24, No. 44, Nov. 5, 2001.

• Richard A. Merrill & Jeffrey K. Francer, Organizing Federal Food Safety Regulation, 31 Seton Hall Law Review 61 (2000).

• Eric A. Posner, Fear and the Regulatory Model of Counterterrorism, 25 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 681 (2002).

• David Satcher, The History of the Public Health Service nd the Surgeon General’s Priorities, 54 Food and Drug Law Journal 13 (1999).

• Jeremy Sobel et al., Threat of a biological terrorist attack on the US food supply: the CDC perspective, The Lancet, 359 (9309), 874-880, Mar. 9, 2002.

• Joan Stephenson, Biowarfare Warning, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 285, No. 6, Feb. 14, 2001.

• Thomas J. Török et al., A Large Community Outbreak of Salmonellosis Caused by intentional Contamination of Restaurant Salad Bars, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 278, No. 5, Aug. 6, 1997.

• Rebecca Voelker, Bioweapons Preparedness Chief Discusses Priorities in World of 21st -Century Biology, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), Vol. 287, No. 5, Feb. 6, 2002.

• Kathryn C. Zoon, Vaccines, Pharmaceutical Products, and Bioterrorism: Challenges for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 5 Emerging Infectious Diseases 534, Jul.-Aug. 1999 (Special Issue).

News Articles, non-Government Press Releases, and other Press Resources

• CNN.com In-Depth Special on biological and chemical weapons available at http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2001/trade.center/biochem.weapons/.

• Press Release, NFPA Says FDA Food Security Guidance Strengthens Barriers to Food Security Threats, National Food Producers Institute, Jan. 8, 2002, available at www.nfpa-food.org.

• Flu drug sales a terrorism tip-off?, CNN.com/HEALTH, Apr. 16, 2002, available at http://www.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/04/16/detecting.anthrax.ap/index.html.

• House Approves Bioterror Bills, Wired.com, Dec. 12, 2001, available at http://www.wired.com/news/conflict/0,2100,49094,00.html.

• Jason Pate, Better Plan Needed for Curbing Epidemics, Newsday, p. A-43, Nov. 29, 2000, available at http://cns.miis.edu/pubs/reports/patend.htm.

• Julie Rovner, Experts Tell Senate US Not Ready for Bioterror, Reuters Health, Apr. 18, 2002, available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_7194.html.

• John Milburn, Officials Discuss Food Vulnerability, Associated Press, Mar. 26, 2002, available at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_6791.html.

• Jeffrey McMurray, Senator Proposes Bioterrorism Hub, Associated Press, Apr. 3, 2002, available at http://www.hlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_6942.html.

• Peggy Peck, Doctors Line Up for Bioterror Info, UPI Science News, Apr. 12, 2002, available at http://www.hlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_7131.html.

• Jeanne Meserve, FDA to propose antiterrorist food safety guidelines, CNN.com, Jan. 8, 2002, available at http://www.cnn.com/2002/US/01/08/rec.food.safety.terrorists/index.html.

Presentations, Press Releases, Floor Statements, etc. by Public Officials and Committees

• Committee News Release, “Tauzin Hails House Passage of Sweeping Bioterrorism Bill,” U.S. House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Dec. 12, 2001, available at http://energycommerce.ouse.gov/107/new/12122001_454.htm.

• Speech, “Food Safety and America’s Future,” Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary of Health and Human Services, at meeting of the National Food Processors Association, Washington, D.C., Nov. 27, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/news/speech/2001/011127.html.

• Press Conference Statement and Floor Statement, Rep. John D. Dingell, “H.R. 3448, The Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Response Act of 2001,” Dec. 11, 2001, available at http://www.house.gov/commerce_democrats/press/107st75.htm.

Some Relevant Testimony Before Congress (in reverse chronological order)

• Statement of D.A. Henderson, M.D., Director, Office of Public Health Preparedness, Department of Health and Human Services, The Science of Bioterrorism: HHS Preparedness, before the House Committee on Science, Dec. 5, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011205.html.

• Statement of Scott R. Lillibridge, M.D., Special Assistant to the Secretary for National Security and Emergency Management, Department of Health and Human Services, Restructuring Government for Homeland Security: Nuclear/Biological/Chemical Threats, before the House Committee on the Budget, Dec. 5, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011205a.html.

• Statement of Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, Federal Efforts to Coordinate and Prepare for Bioterrorism: The HHS Role, before the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs and Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Services, Oct. 17, 2001 (available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011017.html.

• Statement of Claude A. Allen, Deputy Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services, The Role of HHS’s Office of Emergency Preparedness in the Federal Response Plan, before the Senate Committee on Veteran’s Affairs, Oct. 16, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/011016.html.

• Statement of Scott R. Lillibridge, M.D., Special Assistant to the Secretary for National Security and Emergency Management, Department of Health and Human Services, HHS Bioterrorism Preparedness, before the House Committee on Energy and Commerce, Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations, Oct. 10, 2001, available at http://www.hhs.gov/asl/testify/t011010a.html.

• Statement [on food safety] of Bernard A. Schwetz, D.V.M., Ph.D., Acting Principal Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Committee on Governmental Affairs, Subcommittee on Oversight of Government Management, Restructuring and the District of Columbia, Oct. 10, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/2001/foodsafety1010.html.

• Statement of Michael A. Vatis, Director of the Institute for Security Technology Studies at Dartmouth College, Cyber Terrorism: The State of U.S. Preparedness, before the House Committee on Government Reform, Subcommittee on Government Efficiency, Financial Management and Intergovernmental Relations, Sep. 26, 2001, available at ISTS webwebsite: http://www.ists.dartmouth.edu/.

• Statement [on FDA accomplishments and challenges] of Bernard A. Schwetz, D.V.M., Ph.D., Acting Principal Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies, May 10, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/oms/ofm/budget/2002/senatefinalwritten.htm.

• Statement of Randolph F. Wykoff, M.D., Associate Commissioner for Operations, Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Veterans’ Affairs, Mar. 17, 1998, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/1998/dod0398.html.

• Statement [on FDA accomplishments and challenges] of Bernard A. Schwetz, D.V.M., Ph.D., Acting Principal Deputy Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, and Related Agencies, Mar. 8, 2001, available at http://www.fda.gov/oc/oms/ofm/budget/2002/TEST226omb.htm.

• Statement [on anthrax vaccine issues] of Mark A. Elengold, Deputy director, Operations Center for Biologics Evaluatin and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the House Committee on Government Reform, Oct. 3, 2000, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/2000/anthraxvaccine-4.html.

• Statement [on food safety] of Joseph A. Levitt, Esq., Director, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, Sep. 20, 2000, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/2000/foodsafety.html.

• Statement [on anthrax vaccine issues] of Kathryn C. Zoon, Ph.D., Director, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Armed Services, Jul. 12, 2000, available at http://www.fda/gov/ola/2000/anthraxvaccine2.html.

• Statement [on FDA plan and budget, including “Countering Bioterrorism Initiative”] of Jane E. Henney, Ph.D., Commissioner of Food and Drugs, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development and Related Agencies, Mar. 7, 2000, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/2000/budget2001.html.

• Statement [on the safety of imported foods] of William B. Schultz, Deputy Commissioner for Policy, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, before the Senate Committee on Government Affairs, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Sep. 24, 1998, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/1998/imported.htm.

• Statement by Michael Friedman, M.D., Deputy Commissioner for Operations, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, “Protecting the U.S. Consumer from Food Borne Illnesses,” before the House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Human Resources and Intergovernmental Affairs, May 10, 1996, available at http://www.fda.gov/ola/1996/foodbor.html.

• Senate Report No. 101-84 (1989), reprinted in Peter Barton Hutt & Richard A. Merrill, Food and Drug Law: Cases and Materials (2d ed.) (1991) at p. 21-22 (addressing FDA’s mission).

Some Additional Relevant Information

Law Firm Articles/Reports:

• Memorandum for External Distribution, Covington & Burling, New Bioterrorism Legislation has Significant Consequences for Food Industry, Dec. 21, 2001.

Miscellaneous Documents:

• Thesis, Matthew J. Littleton, Naval Postgraduate School, Information Age Terrorism: Toward Cyberterror, Dec. 1995, available at http://www.fas.org/irp/threat/cyber/docs/npgs/terror.htm

Some additional articles that I did not review but that appear potentially relevant:

• Ronald Atlas, Combating the Threat of Biowarfare and Bioterrorism: Defending Against Biological Weapons is Critical to Global Security, Bioscience, June 1, 1999, at 465.

• Barry Kellman, Biological Terrorism: Legal Measures for Preventing Catastrophe, 24 Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 417 (2001)

• Donald A. Henderson, The Looming Threat of Bioterrorism, 283 Science 1279 (1999).