The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival

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The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival

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dc.contributor.author Schwartz, Joel David
dc.contributor.author Coull, Brent Andrew
dc.contributor.author Laden, Francine
dc.contributor.author Ryan, Louise Marie
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-11T02:49:16Z
dc.date.issued 2008
dc.identifier.citation Schwartz, Joel, Brent Coull, Francine Laden, and Louise Ryan. 2008. The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival. Environmental Health Perspectives 116(1): 64-69. en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4887121
dc.description.abstract BACKGROUND: Understanding the shape of the concentration–response curve for particles is important for public health, and lack of such understanding was recently cited by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a reason for not tightening the standards. Similarly, the delay between changes in exposure and changes in health is also important in public health decision making. We addressed these issues using an extended follow-up of the Harvard Six Cities Study. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards models were fit controlling for smoking, body mass index, and other covariates. Two approaches were used. First, we used penalized splines, which fit a flexible functional form to the concentration response to examine its shape, and chose the degrees of freedom for the curve based on Akaike’s information criterion. Because the uncertainties around the resultant curve do not reflect the uncertainty in model choice, we also used model averaging as an alternative approach, where multiple models are fit explicitly and averaged, weighted by their probability of being correct given the data. We examined the lag relationship by model averaging across a range of unconstrained distributed lag models. RESULTS: We found that the concentration–response curve is linear, clearly continuing below the current U.S. standard of 15 μg/m3, and that the effects of changes in exposure on mortality are seen within two years. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in particle concentrations below U.S. EPA standards would increase life expectancy. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1289/ehp.9955 en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject air pollution en_US
dc.subject dose response en_US
dc.subject model averaging en_US
dc.subject particles en_US
dc.subject PM2.5 en_US
dc.subject spline en_US
dc.subject survival en_US
dc.subject threshold en_US
dc.subject uncertainty en_US
dc.title The Effect of Dose and Timing of Dose on the Association between Airborne Particles and Survival en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Environmental Health Perspectives en_US
dash.depositing.author Ryan, Louise Marie
dc.date.available 2011-05-11T02:49:16Z
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Biostatistics en_US
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Biostatistics en_US

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