3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

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3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water.

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dc.contributor.author Vartiainen, Terttu
dc.contributor.author Mäki-Paakkanen, Jorma
dc.contributor.author Harrington, Joseph J
dc.contributor.author Wright, J Michael
dc.contributor.author Schwartz, Joel David
dc.contributor.author Altshul, Larisa M.
dc.contributor.author Dockery, Douglas W.
dc.date.accessioned 2011-05-16T23:41:37Z
dc.date.issued 2002
dc.identifier.citation Wright, J. Michael, Joel Schwartz, Terttu Vartiainen, Jorma Mäki-Paakkanen, Larisa Altshul, Joseph J. Harrington, and Douglas W. Dockery. 2002. 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water. Environmental Health Perspectives 110(2): 157-164. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0091-6765 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:4889583
dc.description.abstract There is limited information on the prevalence of the potent mutagen 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in U.S. water supplies. We measured MX concentrations and mutagenic activity in tap water samples from 36 surface water systems throughout Massachusetts. We found MX levels much higher (up to 80 ng/L) than previously reported in the United States. We also evaluated the role of water treatment on mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. After adjusting for other covariates, chloramination and filtration were the most important treatment options for reducing mutagenic activity and disinfection by-product formation. Multiple chlorine application (before and after filtration) was associated with increased mutagenicity. Chlorine dose, pH, and total organic carbon were also associated with mutagenicity, MX, and total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration. Seasonal variation was evident for MX and mutagenic activity, with higher levels occurring in the spring compared to the fall. In contrast, TTHM concentrations were greater in the fall. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.relation.isversionof http://ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/2002/110p157-164wright/abstract.html en_US
dc.relation.hasversion http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240730/pdf/ en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject disinfection by-products en_US
dc.subject drinking water, mutagenicity en_US
dc.subject MX en_US
dc.subject trihalomethanes en_US
dc.title 3-Chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mutagenic activity in Massachusetts drinking water. en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Environmental Health Perspectives en_US
dash.depositing.author Schwartz, Joel David
dc.date.available 2011-05-16T23:41:37Z
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Environmental Health en_US

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