# A New Dawn for Industrial Photosynthesis

 Title: A New Dawn for Industrial Photosynthesis Author: Robertson, Dan E.; Jacobson, Stuart A.; Morgan, Frederick; Berry, David; Church, George McDonald; Afeyan, Noubar Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors. Citation: Robertson, Dan E., Stuart A. Jacobson, Frederick Morgan, David Berry, George M. Church, and Noubar B. Afeyan. 2011. A new dawn for industrial photosynthesis. Photosynthesis Research 107(3): 269-277. Full Text & Related Files: 3059824.pdf (411.0Kb; PDF) Abstract: Several emerging technologies are aiming to meet renewable fuel standards, mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and provide viable alternatives to fossil fuels. Direct conversion of solar energy into fungible liquid fuel is a particularly attractive option, though conversion of that energy on an industrial scale depends on the efficiency of its capture and conversion. Large-scale programs have been undertaken in the recent past that used solar energy to grow innately oil-producing algae for biomass processing to biodiesel fuel. These efforts were ultimately deemed to be uneconomical because the costs of culturing, harvesting, and processing of algal biomass were not balanced by the process efficiencies for solar photon capture and conversion. This analysis addresses solar capture and conversion efficiencies and introduces a unique systems approach, enabled by advances in strain engineering, photobioreactor design, and a process that contradicts prejudicial opinions about the viability of industrial photosynthesis. We calculate efficiencies for this direct, continuous solar process based on common boundary conditions, empirical measurements and validated assumptions wherein genetically engineered cyanobacteria convert industrially sourced, high-concentration CO$$_2$$ into secreted, fungible hydrocarbon products in a continuous process. These innovations are projected to operate at areal productivities far exceeding those based on accumulation and refining of plant or algal biomass or on prior assumptions of photosynthetic productivity. This concept, currently enabled for production of ethanol and alkane diesel fuel molecules, and operating at pilot scale, establishes a new paradigm for high productivity manufacturing of nonfossil-derived fuels and chemicals. Published Version: doi://10.1007/s11120-011-9631-7 Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3059824/pdf/ Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:5130453