Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Fresh Look at the Evidence

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Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Fresh Look at the Evidence

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dc.contributor.author Micha, Renata
dc.contributor.author Mozaffarian, Dariush
dc.date.accessioned 2011-12-24T04:08:51Z
dc.date.issued 2010
dc.identifier.citation Micha, Renata, and Dariush Mozaffarian. 2010. Saturated fat and cardiometabolic risk factors, coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes: A fresh look at the evidence. Lipids 45(10): 893-905. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0024-4201 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:5978677
dc.description.abstract Dietary and policy recommendations frequently focus on reducing saturated fatty acid consumption for improving cardiometabolic health, based largely on ecologic and animal studies. Recent advances in nutritional science now allow assessment of critical questions about health effects of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We reviewed the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of lipid and non-lipid risk factors, prospective cohort studies of disease endpoints, and RCTs of disease endpoints for cardiometabolic effects of SFA consumption in humans, including whether effects vary depending on specific SFA chain-length; on the replacement nutrient; or on disease outcomes evaluated. Compared with carbohydrate, the TC:HDL-C ratio is nonsignificantly affected by consumption of myristic or palmitic acid, is nonsignificantly decreased by stearic acid, and is significantly decreased by lauric acid. However, insufficient evidence exists for different chain-length-specific effects on other risk pathways or, more importantly, disease endpoints. Based on consistent evidence from human studies, replacing SFA with polyunsaturated fat modestly lowers coronary heart disease risk, with ~10% risk reduction for a 5% energy substitution; whereas replacing SFA with carbohydrate has no benefit and replacing SFA with monounsaturated fat has uncertain effects. Evidence for the effects of SFA consumption on vascular function, insulin resistance, diabetes, and stroke is mixed, with many studies showing no clear effects, highlighting a need for further investigation of these endpoints. Public health emphasis on reducing SFA consumption without considering the replacement nutrient or, more importantly, the many other food-based risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is unlikely to produce substantial intended benefits. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Springer-Verlag en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1007/s11745-010-3393-4 en_US
dc.relation.hasversion http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950931/pdf/ en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject cardiovascular disease en_US
dc.subject diabetes mellitus en_US
dc.subject diet en_US
dc.subject nutrition en_US
dc.subject saturated fatty acids en_US
dc.subject fatty acids en_US
dc.title Saturated Fat and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes: A Fresh Look at the Evidence en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Lipids en_US
dash.depositing.author Mozaffarian, Dariush
dc.date.available 2011-12-24T04:08:51Z
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Epidemiology en_US
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US

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