HbA\(_{1c}\) Levels in Schoolchildren With Type 1 Diabetes Are Seasonally Variable and Dependent on Weather Conditions

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HbA\(_{1c}\) Levels in Schoolchildren With Type 1 Diabetes Are Seasonally Variable and Dependent on Weather Conditions

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dc.contributor.author Mianowska, B.
dc.contributor.author Fendler, W.
dc.contributor.author Szadkowska, A.
dc.contributor.author Baranowska, A.
dc.contributor.author Grzelak-Agaciak, E.
dc.contributor.author Sadon, J.
dc.contributor.author Mlynarski, W.
dc.contributor.author Keenan, Hillary
dc.date.accessioned 2012-01-03T04:26:33Z
dc.date.issued 2010
dc.identifier.citation Mianowska, B., W. Fendler, A. Szadkowska, A. Baranowska, E. Grzelak-Agaciak, J. Sadon, Hillary Keenan, and W. Mlynarski. 2010. HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes are seasonally variable and dependent on weather conditions. Diabetologia 54(4): 749-756. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0012-186X en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:5978755
dc.description.abstract Aims/hypothesis: We evaluated seasonal HbA\(_{1c}\) changes in children with type 1 diabetes and its relation with measures of weather conditions. Methods: HbA\(_{1c}\) changes over more than 3 years were evaluated in type 1 diabetic patients who were younger than 18 years and had diabetes duration of more than 12 months, and correlated with measures of weather conditions (ambient temperature, hours of sunshine and solar irradiance). After comparison of autocorrelation patterns, patterns of metabolic control and meteorological data were evaluated using Spearman rank correlation. Results: A total of 3,935 HbA\(_{1c}\) measurements in 589 school (≥7 years) and 88 preschool (<7 years) children were analysed. Mean (±SD) HbA\(_{1c}\) level for the whole study period was 7.65±1.12%. The lowest HbA\(_{1c}\) levels were observed in late summer and the highest in winter months, with differences consistently exceeding 0.44%. Autocorrelation analysis of HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren showed a sine-wave pattern with a cycle length of roughly 12 months, which mirrored changes in ambient temperature. Strong negative correlations of HbA\(_{1c}\) with ambient temperature (R=−0.56; p=0.0002), hours of sunshine (R=−0.52; p=0.0007) and solar irradiance (R=−0.52; p=0.0006) were present in schoolchildren, but not in preschoolers (p≥0.29 for each correlation). Conclusions/interpretation: Seasonal changes of HbA\(_{1c}\) levels in schoolchildren with type 1 diabetes are a significant phenomenon and should be considered in patient education and diabetes management. They may potentially affect the results of clinical trials using HbA\(_{1c}\) levels as their primary outcome, as well as HbA\(_{1c}\)-based diagnosis of diabetes. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher Springer-Verlag en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi://10.1007/s00125-010-2013-4 en_US
dc.relation.hasversion http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3052478/pdf/ en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject adolescents en_US
dc.subject children en_US
dc.subject HbA1c en_US
dc.subject seasonal variation en_US
dc.subject type 1 diabetes mellitus en_US
dc.title HbA\(_{1c}\) Levels in Schoolchildren With Type 1 Diabetes Are Seasonally Variable and Dependent on Weather Conditions en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Diabetologia en_US
dash.depositing.author Keenan, Hillary
dc.date.available 2012-01-03T04:26:33Z
dash.affiliation.other 100178 en_US

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