Fetal Lead Exposure at Each Stage of Pregnancy as a Predictor of Infant Mental Development

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Fetal Lead Exposure at Each Stage of Pregnancy as a Predictor of Infant Mental Development

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dc.contributor.author Hu, Howard
dc.contributor.author Téllez-Rojo, Martha María
dc.contributor.author Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor
dc.contributor.author Schnaas, Lourdes
dc.contributor.author Mercado-García, Adriana
dc.contributor.author Hernández-Avila, Mauricio
dc.contributor.author Bellinger, David C.
dc.contributor.author Smith, Donald
dc.contributor.author Ettinger, Adrienne S
dc.contributor.author Schwartz, Joel David
dc.date.accessioned 2012-02-13T18:06:35Z
dc.date.issued 2006
dc.identifier.citation Hu, Howard, Martha Mari­a Tellez-Rojo, David Bellinger, Donald Smith, Adrienne S. Ettinger, Hector Lamadrid-Figueroa, Joel Schwartz, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-Garci­a, and Mauricio Hernandez-Avila. 2006. Fetal lead exposure at each stage of pregnancy as a predictor of infant mental development. Environmental Health Perspectives 114(11): 1730-1735. en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0091-6765 en_US
dc.identifier.uri http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:8157299
dc.description.abstract Background: The impact of prenatal lead exposure on neurodevelopment remains unclear in terms of consistency, the trimester of greatest vulnerability, and the best method for estimating fetal lead exposure. Objective: We studied prenatal lead exposure’s impact on neurodevelopment using repeated measures of fetal dose as reflected by maternal whole blood and plasma lead levels. Methods: We measured lead in maternal plasma and whole blood during each trimester in 146 pregnant women in Mexico City. We then measured umbilical cord blood lead at delivery and, when offspring were 12 and 24 months of age, measured blood lead and administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. We used multivariate regression, adjusting for covariates and 24-month blood lead, to compare the impacts of our pregnancy measures of fetal lead dose. Results: Maternal lead levels were moderately high with a first-trimester blood lead mean (± SD) value of 7.1 ± 5.1 μg/dL and 14% of values ≥10 μg/dL. Both maternal plasma and whole blood lead during the first trimester (but not in the second or third trimester) were significant predictors (p less than 0.05) of poorer Mental Development Index (MDI) scores. In models combining all three trimester measures and using standardized coefficients, the effect of first-trimester maternal plasma lead was somewhat greater than the effect of first-trimester maternal whole blood lead and substantially greater than the effects of second- or third-trimester plasma lead, and values averaged over all three trimesters. A 1-SD change in first-trimester plasma lead was associated with a reduction in MDI score of 3.5 points. Postnatal blood lead levels in the offspring were less strongly correlated with MDI scores. Conclusions: Fetal lead exposure has an adverse effect on neurodevelopment, with an effect that may be most pronounced during the first trimester and best captured by measuring lead in either maternal plasma or whole blood. en_US
dc.language.iso en_US en_US
dc.publisher National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences en_US
dc.relation.isversionof doi:10.1289/ehp.9067 en_US
dc.relation.hasversion http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1665421/pdf/ en_US
dash.license LAA
dc.subject children's health en_US
dc.subject bone en_US
dc.subject IQ en_US
dc.subject lead en_US
dc.subject plasma en_US
dc.subject pregnancy en_US
dc.subject neurodevelopment en_US
dc.title Fetal Lead Exposure at Each Stage of Pregnancy as a Predictor of Infant Mental Development en_US
dc.type Journal Article en_US
dc.description.version Version of Record en_US
dc.relation.journal Environmental Health Perspectives en_US
dash.depositing.author Bellinger, David C.
dc.date.available 2012-02-13T18:06:35Z
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Neurology-Children's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US
dash.affiliation.other HMS^Medicine-Brigham and Women's Hospital en_US
dash.affiliation.other SPH^Exposure Epidemiology and Risk Program en_US

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