Digital Access to Scholarship at HarvardThe DASH digital repository system captures, stores, indexes, preserves, and distributes digital research material.http://dash.harvard.edu2013-05-08T12:42:45Z2013-05-08T12:42:45Z10151Proverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for ExampleShapin, Stevenhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:32210932009-12-15T22:07:26Z2001-01-01T00:00:00ZProverbial Economies: How an Understanding of Some Linguistic and Social Features of Common Sense Can Throw Light on More Prestigious Bodies of Knowledge, Science for Example
An evaluative contrast between learned expertise and lay knowledge is a pervasive and longstanding feature of modern culture. Occasionally, the learned have pointed to folkish proverbs to illustrate the inadequacies of common-sense reasoning and judgement. Proverbs are said perspicuously to display the superficiality, the imprecision, and even the logical contradictions of common-sense thinking. I offer an interpretation of proverbs in their naturally occurring settings as epistemically powerful, mnemonically robust, practically pertinent, and referentially flexible. My purpose is not just to recuperate the value of proverbial reasoning but, ultimately, to show the relevance of such reasoning to a revised appreciation of modern technical practices, including science, technology and medicine. To that end, the paper concludes with some speculative remarks about the linguistic forms in which the heuristics of present-day technical practices are expressed and transmitted.
2001-01-01T00:00:00ZModernism’s MelosAlbright, Danielhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:92967272012-07-26T07:31:20Z2011-01-01T00:00:00ZModernism’s Melos
2011-01-01T00:00:00ZDiachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek PoetryNikolaev, Alexander Sergeevichhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:102886262013-02-13T08:31:09Z2013-02-12T00:00:00ZDiachronic Poetics and Language History: Studies in Archaic Greek Poetry
Nikolaev, Alexander Sergeevich
The broad objective of this dissertation is an interdisciplinary study uniting historical linguistics, classical philology, and comparative poetics in an attempt to investigate archaic Greek poetic texts from a diachronic perspective. This thesis consists of two parts. The first part, “Etymology and Poetics”, is devoted to several cases where scantiness of attestation and lack of semantic information render traditional philological methods of textual interpretation insufficient. In such cases, the meaning of a word has to be arrived at through linguistic analysis and verified through appeal to related poetic traditions, such as that of Indo-Iranian. Chapter 1 proposes a new interpretation for the enigmatic word ἀάατο̋, the Homeric epithet of the waters of the Styx, which is shown to have meant ‘sunless’. Chapter 2 deals with the word ἀριδείκετο̋, argued to mean ‘famous’: this solution finds support in the use of the root *dei̯k- in the poetic expression “to show forth praise”, found in Greek choral lyric and the Rigveda. Chapter 3 investigates the history of the verbs ἰάπτω ‘to harm’ and ἰάπτω ‘to send forth (to Hades)’. Chapter 4 improves the text of Pindar (O. 6.54), restoring a form ἀπειράτωι. Chapter 5 discusses the difficult word ἀμαυρό̋, establishing for it a meaning ‘weak’ and proposing a new etymology. Finally, Chapter 6 places Alc. 34 in the context of comparative mythology, with the object of reconstructing the history of the Lesbian lyric tradition. The second part, “Grammar of Poetry”, shifts the focus of the inquiry from comparative poetics to the language of early Greek poetry and its use. Chapter 7 addresses the problematic Homeric aorist infinitives in -έειν, showing how these artificial forms were created by allomorphic remodeling driven by metrical necessity; the problem is placed in the wider context of the debate about the transmission and development of Homeric epic diction. The metrical and linguistic facts relating to the distribution of infinitives are further discussed in Chapter 8, where it is argued that the unexpected Aeolic form νηφέμεν in Archil. 4 should be viewed as an intentional allusion to the epic tradition, specifically, the famous midsummer picnic scene in Hesiod.
2013-02-12T00:00:00ZBe an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the MaghrebGharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisahttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:104238442013-03-19T07:31:33Z2013-03-18T00:00:00ZBe an Outlaw, Be a Hero: Cinematic Figures of Transgression and Urban Banditry in Brazil, France, and the Maghreb
Gharavi, Maryam Monalisa Monalisa
The project is a transnational study of how filmic representations of urban criminals and marginal figures transformed as Brazil, France, and the Maghreb shifted from military governments to liberal democracies. Beyond ideological productions that simply produce positive or negative portrayals, I examine how films made under military regimes invite audiences to identify with anti-heroes while films made under liberal democracies invite admiration of institutional figures, turning standards of good and evil on their head. The anti-authoritarian potential of violence in earlier periods is construed as a failed redemption in later ones. The theoretical background of the project rests on the oppositional and constitutive relationship between the outlaw and the state, the relationship between urban space and criminal personification, and the historical specificity of the transgressive figure's embodiment of socially un/desirable traits. I establish a geographic and conceptual continuity through a comparative postulation of urban citizenship--who belongs to the city and who does not, who is marked in their transgression and who is not, who is laudable bandit and who is condemned. In delving into a face-to-face relationship between the outlaw and the state following an aesthetic and historical tracing of a highly iconic figure at the margins of the law, the project brings statecraft into focus through the use of visual and representational forms.
2013-03-18T00:00:00ZThe Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of TraditionShelemay, Kayhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:32924062009-12-15T22:11:36Z1996-01-01T00:00:00ZThe Ethnomusicologist and the Transmission of Tradition
1996-01-01T00:00:00ZThe Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a SolutionJuda, Adam I.Parkes, David C.http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:46868082011-01-26T08:57:10Z2006-01-01T00:00:00ZThe Sequential Auction Problem on eBay: An Empirical Analysis and a Solution
Juda, Adam I.; Parkes, David C.
Bidders on eBay have no dominant bidding strategy when faced with multiple auctions each offering an item of interest. As seen through an analysis of 1,956 auctions on eBay for a Dell E193FP LCD monitor, some bidders win auctions at prices higher than those of other available auctions, while others never win an auction despite placing bids in losing efforts that are greater than the closing prices of other available auctions. These misqueues in strategic behavior hamper the efficiency of the system, and in so doing limit the revenue potential for sellers. This paper proposes a novel options-based extension to eBay's proxy-bidding system that resolves this strategic issue for buyers in commoditized markets. An empirical analysis of eBay provides a basis for computer simulations that investigate the market effects of the options-based scheme, and demonstrates that the options-based scheme provides greater efficiency than eBay, while also increasing seller revenue.
2006-01-01T00:00:00ZYeats, A Vision, and Art HistoryAlbright, Danielhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:89671932012-07-10T07:31:40Z2011-01-01T00:00:00ZYeats, A Vision, and Art History
Yeats worried that his poetry might be destroyed if he wandered too far down what he called the hodos chameliontos, the chameleon road, in which the imagination became so replete, overstimulated, that it kept producing images in such profusion that the images became unintelligible. In a number of passages deleted from his plays, we can see Yeats experimenting with these wild profusions of images. In the art historical writings he studied, Yeats found visual analogues to the hodos chameliontos in the world of Persian art.
2011-01-01T00:00:00ZDevelopment and Evaluation of an Open Source Software Tool for Deidentification of Pathology ReportsBeckwith, Bruce AMahaadevan, RajeshwarriBalis, Ulysses JKuo, Frank Chuanhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:84381832012-03-24T07:32:58Z2006-01-01T00:00:00ZDevelopment and Evaluation of an Open Source Software Tool for Deidentification of Pathology Reports
Beckwith, Bruce A; Mahaadevan, Rajeshwarri; Balis, Ulysses J; Kuo, Frank Chuan
Background: Electronic medical records, including pathology reports, are often used for research purposes. Currently, there are few programs freely available to remove identifiers while leaving the remainder of the pathology report text intact. Our goal was to produce an open source, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) compliant, deidentification tool tailored for pathology reports. We designed a three-step process for removing potential identifiers. The first step is to look for identifiers known to be associated with the patient, such as name, medical record number, pathology accession number, etc. Next, a series of pattern matches look for predictable patterns likely to represent identifying data; such as dates, accession numbers and addresses as well as patient, institution and physician names. Finally, individual words are compared with a database of proper names and geographic locations. Pathology reports from three institutions were used to design and test the algorithms. The software was improved iteratively on training sets until it exhibited good performance. 1800 new pathology reports were then processed. Each report was reviewed manually before and after deidentification to catalog all identifiers and note those that were not removed. Results: 1254 (69.7 %) of 1800 pathology reports contained identifiers in the body of the report. 3439 (98.3%) of 3499 unique identifiers in the test set were removed. Only 19 HIPAA-specified identifiers (mainly consult accession numbers and misspelled names) were missed. Of 41 non-HIPAA identifiers missed, the majority were partial institutional addresses and ages. Outside consultation case reports typically contain numerous identifiers and were the most challenging to deidentify comprehensively. There was variation in performance among reports from the three institutions, highlighting the need for site-specific customization, which is easily accomplished with our tool. Conclusion: We have demonstrated that it is possible to create an open-source deidentification program which performs well on free-text pathology reports.
2006-01-01T00:00:00ZInference of Expressive Declassification PoliciesChong, Stephen NVaughan, Jeffrey A.http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:82075052012-02-24T09:54:01Z2011-01-01T00:00:00ZInference of Expressive Declassification Policies
Chong, Stephen N; Vaughan, Jeffrey A.
We explore the inference of expressive human-readable declassification policies as a step towards providing practical tools and techniques for strong language-based information security. Security-type systems can enforce expressive information-security policies, but can require enormous programmer effort before any security benefit is realized. To reduce the burden on the programmer, we focus on inference of expressive yet intuitive information-security policies from programs with few programmer annotations. We define a novel security policy language that can express what information a program may release, under what conditions (or, when) such release may occur, and which procedures are involved with the release (or, where in the code the release occur). We describe a dataflow analysis for precisely inferring these policies, and build a tool that instantiates this analysis for the Java programming language. We validate the policies, analysis, and our implementation by applying the tool to a collection of simple Java programs.
2011-01-01T00:00:00ZType-safe Linking and Modular Assembly LanguageGlew, NealMorrisett, John Gregoryhttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:27974482009-12-15T21:59:03Z1999-01-01T00:00:00ZType-safe Linking and Modular Assembly Language
Glew, Neal; Morrisett, John Gregory
Linking is a low-level task that is usually vaguely specified, if at all, by language definitions. However, the security of web browsers and other extensible systems depends crucially upon a set of checks that must be performed at link time. Building upon the simple, but elegant ideas of Cardelli, and module constructs from high-level languages, we present a formal model of typed object files and a set of inference rules that are sufficient to guarantee that type safety is preserved by the linking process.
Whereas Cardelli's link calculus is built on top of the simply-typed lambda calculus, our object files are based upon typed assembly language so that we may model important low-level implementation issues. Furthermore, unlike Cardelli, we provide support for abstract types and higher-order type constructors - features critical for building extensible systems or modern programming languages such as ML.