Now showing items 1-20 of 42

    • Abacavir Alters the Transcription of Inflammatory Cytokines in Virologically Suppressed, HIV-Infected Women 

      MacLeod, Iain James; Rowley, Christopher Francis; Lockman, Shahin; Ogwu, Anthony; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Mmalane, Mompati; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer; Shapiro, Roger L. (International AIDS Society, 2012)
      Background: Abacavir (ABC) may be associated with a small, increased risk of myocardial infarction in HIV-infected adults, possibly related to cytokine-mediated inflammation. Methods: To evaluate the induction of inflammatory ...
    • Acyclovir and Transmission of HIV-1 from Persons Infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2 

      Celum, C.; Wald, A.; Lingappa, J.R.; Magaret, A.S.; Wang, R.S.; Mugo, N.; Mujugira, A.; Baeten, J.M.; Mullins, J.I.; Hughes, J.P.; Bukusi, E.A.; Cohen, C.R.; Katabira, E.; Ronald, A.; Kiarie, J.; Farquhar, C.; Stewart, G.J.; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer; Were, E.; Fife, K.H.; de Bruyn, G.; Gray, G.E.; McIntyre, J.A.; Manongi, R.; Kapiga, S.; Coetzee, D.; Allen, S.; Inambao, M.; Kayitenkore, K.; Karita, E.; Kanweka, W.; Delany, S.; Rees, H.; Vwalika, B.; Stevens, W.; Campbell, M.S.; Thomas, K.K.; Coombs, R.W.; Morrow, R.; Whittington, W.L.H.; McElrath, M.J.; Barnes, L.; Ridzon, R.; Corey, L. (New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS), 2010)
      BACKGROUND: Most persons who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are also infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which is frequently reactivated and is associated with increased plasma ...
    • Analysis of HIV-1 gp120 Quasispecies Suggests High Prevalence of Intra-Subtype Recombination 

      Kiwelu, IE; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Margolin, L; Baca, Justin Thomas; Manongi, R; Sam, N; Shao, J; MacLane, MF; Kapiga, Saidi Hussein; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2012)
    • Antiretroviral Regimens in Pregnancy and Breast-Feeding in Botswana 

      Shapiro, R.L.; Hughes, M.D.; Ogwu, Anthony; Kitch, Doug William; Lockman, Shahin; Moffat, C.; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Moyo, S; Thior, Ibou; McIntosh, Kenneth; van Widenfelt, E.; Leidner, Jean A.; Powis, Kathleen Marie; Asmelash, A.; Tumbare, E.; Zwerski, S.; Sharma, Upasna; Handelsman, E.; Mburu, K.; Jayeoba, O.; Moko, E.; Souda, Shashidhar Vaman; Lubega, E.; Akhtar, M.; Wester, C William; Tuomola, R.; Snowden, W.; Martinez-Tristani, M.; Mazhani, L.; Essex, Myron Elmer (New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM/MMS), 2010)
      BACKGROUND: The most effective highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to prevent mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in pregnancy and its efficacy during breast-feeding are ...
    • Association between Virus-Specific T-Cell Responses and Plasma Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infection 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Gilbert, P.; Peter, T.; McLane, Mary Frances; Gaolekwe, S.; Rybak, N.; Thior, Ibou; Ndung, T.; Marlink, Richard G.; Lee, Tae Ho; Essex, Myron Elmer (American Society for Microbiology, 2003)
      Virus-specific T-cell immune responses are important in restraint of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and control of disease. Plasma viral load is a key determinant of disease progression and ...
    • Cancer Incidence following Expansion of HIV Treatment in Botswana 

      Dryden-Peterson, Scott; Medhin, Heluf; Kebabonye-Pusoentsi, Malebogo; Seage, George R.; Suneja, Gita; Kayembe, Mukendi K. A.; Mmalane, Mompati; Rebbeck, Timothy; Rider, Jennifer R.; Essex, Myron; Lockman, Shahin (Public Library of Science, 2015)
      Background: The expansion of combination antiretroviral treatment (ART) in southern Africa has dramatically reduced mortality due to AIDS-related infections, but the impact of ART on cancer incidence in the region is ...
    • Characteristics of HIV-1 Discordant Couples Enrolled in a Trial of HSV-2 Suppression to Reduce HIV-1 Transmission: The Partners Study 

      Lingappa, Jairam R.; Kahle, Erin; Mugo, Nelly; Mujugira, Andrew; Magaret, Amalia; Baeten, Jared; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Cohen, Craig R.; Katabira, Elly; Ronald, Allan; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey; Stewart, Grace John; Were, Edwin; Fife, Kenneth; deBruyn, Guy; Gray, Glenda; Manongi, Rachel; Coetzee, David; Allen, Susan; Inambao, Mubiana; Kayitenkore, Kayitesi; Karita, Etienne; Kanweka, William; Delany, Sinead; Rees, Helen; Vwalika, Bellington; Coombs, Robert W.; Morrow, Rhoda; Whittington, William; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Celum, Connie; Emery, Sean; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer; McIntyre, James Francis; Kapiga, Saidi Hussein (Public Library of Science, 2009)
      Background: The Partners HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Study (Partners Study) is a phase III, placebo-controlled trial of daily acyclovir for genital herpes (HSV-2) suppression among HIV-1/HSV-2 co-infected persons to reduce ...
    • Children Who Acquire HIV Infection Perinatally Are at Higher Risk of Early Death than Those Acquiring Infection through Breastmilk: A Meta-Analysis 

      Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Essex, Myron Elmer; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D.; Newell, Marie-Louise (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2012)
      BACKGROUND: Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates ...
    • Cross-reactivity to human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus and molecular cloning of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type III from African green monkeys. 

      Hirsch, V.; Riedel, N.; Kornfeld, H.; Kanki, Phyllis Jean; Essex, Myron Elmer; Mullins, J. I. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 1986)
      Simian T-lymphotropic retroviruses with structural, antigenic, and cytopathic features similar to the etiologic agent of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated ...
    • Detection of Low Frequency Drug Resistant Mutations in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-1C Infections 

      Okatch, Harriet; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2006)
    • Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on Disease Progression in Asymptomatic, Antiretroviral-Naive, HIV-Infected Adults in Botswana 

      Baum, Marianna K.; Campa, Adriana; Lai, Shenghan; Sales Martinez, Sabrina; Tsalaile, Lesedi; Burns, Patricia Jeanne; Farahani, Mansour Safaie; Li, Yinghui; van Widenfelt, Erik; Page, John Bryan; Bussmann, Hermann; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Moyo, Sikhulele; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Thior, Ibou; Essex, Myron Elmer; Marlink, Richard G. (American Medical Association (AMA), 2013)
      IMPORTANCE Micronutrient deficiencies occur early in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and supplementation with micronutrients may be beneficial; however, its effectiveness has not been investigated early ...
    • Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk 

      Lingappa, Jairam R.; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Gray, Glenda E.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Donnell, Deborah; Farquhar, Carey; Mullins, James I.; Coombs, Robert W.; Rees, Helen; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Richard S.; Campbell, Mary S.; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      Background: The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative ...
    • Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multiassay Algorithms in Estimating HIV Type 1 Subtype C Incidence 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; LeCuyer, Tessa; Wang, Rui; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Weng, Jia; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Bussmann, Hermann; Mine, Madisa; Engelbrecht, Susan; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard G.; Baum, Marianna K.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2014)
      Laboratory cross-sectional assays are useful for the estimation of HIV incidence, but are known to misclassify individuals with long-standing infection as recently infected. The false recent rate (FRR) varies widely across ...
    • Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV-1 Subtype C Accessory and Regulatory Genes in Primary Infection 

      Rossenkhan, Raabya; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Sebunya, TK; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Gashe, BA; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2012)
    • Genomewide Association Study for Determinants of HIV-1 Acquisition and Viral Set Point in HIV-1 Serodiscordant Couples with Quantified Virus Exposure 

      Lingappa, Jairam R.; Petrovski, Slavé; Kahle, Erin; Fellay, Jacques; Shianna, Kevin; McElrath, M. Juliana; Thomas, Katherine Bain; Baeten, Jared M.; Celum, Connie; Wald, Anna; de Bruyn, Guy; Mullins, James I.; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Farquhar, Carey; Essex, Myron Elmer; Donnell, Deborah; Kiarie, James; Haynes, Bart; Goldstein, David (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2011)
      BACKGROUND: Host genetic factors may be important determinants of HIV-1 sexual acquisition. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for host genetic variants modifying HIV-1 acquisition and viral control in the ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C Phylodynamics in the Global Epidemic 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Lagakos, Stephen; Essex, Myron Elmer (MDPI AG, 2010)
      The diversity of HIV-1 and its propensity to generate escape mutants present fundamental challenges to control efforts, including HIV vaccine design. Intra-host diversification of HIV is determined by immune responses ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission 

      Baum, Marianna; Thior, Ibou; Asmelash, Aida; Campa, Adriana; van Widenfelt, Erik; Mine, Madisa; Moffat, Claire; Mmalane, Mompati; Gilbert, Peter; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Bussmann, Hermann; Lockman, Shahin; Shapiro, Roger L.; Wester, Carolyn Negley; Wester, C William; Ogwu, Anthony; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard George; Seage, George R.; De Gruttola, Victor Gerard; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      The first aim of the study is to assess the distribution of HIV-1 RNA levels in subtype C infection. Among 4,348 drug-naïve HIV-positive individuals participating in clinical studies in Botswana, the median baseline plasma ...
    • HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies 

      Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary Frances; Kapiga, Saidi Hussein; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      This study analyzed the distribution and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, multiplicity of HIV-1 infection, and frequency of inter-subtype recombination among HIV-1-infected female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Kilimanjaro ...
    • Humoral Immune Pressure Selects for HIV-1 CXC-chemokine Receptor 4-using Variants 

      Lin, Nina; Gonzalez, Oscar A.; Registre, Ludy; Becerril, Carlos; Etemad, Behzad; Lu, Hong; Wu, Xueling; Lockman, Shahin; Essex, Myron; Moyo, Sikhulile; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Sagar, Manish (Elsevier, 2016)
      Although both C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)- and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4)-using HIV-1 strains cause AIDS, the emergence of CXCR4-utilizing variants is associated with an accelerated decline in CD4 + T cells. It ...
    • Immunohaematological reference values for HIV-negative healthy adults in Botswana 

      Mine, Madisa; Moyo, Sikhulile; Stevens, Penny; Michael, Kurt; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Asmelash, Aida; Molefhabangwe, S’khatele; Woldegabriel, Elias; Mothowaeng, Gaseboloke; Maruta, Talkmore; Kamhukamwe, Charity; Mangwendeza, Phibeon M.; Holmes-Pretorius, Molly; Mtoni, Isaac; Motswaledi, Modisa; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard G.; Seipone, Khumo; Gaolathe, Tendani; Essex, Myron Elmer (AOSIS, 2011)
      BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratories in Botswana have relied entirely on the reference intervals for normal immunohaematological values provided by manufacturers' kits and textbooks. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to ...