Now showing items 1-20 of 28

    • Analysis of HIV-1 gp120 Quasispecies Suggests High Prevalence of Intra-Subtype Recombination 

      Kiwelu, IE; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Margolin, L; Baca, Justin Thomas; Manongi, R; Sam, N; Shao, J; MacLane, MF; Kapiga, Saidi Hussein; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2012)
    • Analysis of Viral Diversity in Relation to the Recency of HIV-1C Infection in Botswana 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; Vandormael, Alain; Wilkinson, Eduan; Engelbrecht, Susan; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Kotokwe, Kenanao P.; Musonda, Rosemary; Tanser, Frank; Essex, Max; Novitsky, Vladimir; de Oliveira, Tulio (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      Background: Cross-sectional, biomarker methods to determine HIV infection recency present a promising and cost-effective alternative to the repeated testing of uninfected individuals. We evaluate a viral-based assay that ...
    • Association between Virus-Specific T-Cell Responses and Plasma Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C Infection 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Gilbert, P.; Peter, T.; McLane, Mary Frances; Gaolekwe, S.; Rybak, N.; Thior, Ibou; Ndung, T.; Marlink, Richard G.; Lee, Tae Ho; Essex, Myron Elmer (American Society for Microbiology, 2003)
      Virus-specific T-cell immune responses are important in restraint of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and control of disease. Plasma viral load is a key determinant of disease progression and ...
    • Detection of Low Frequency Drug Resistant Mutations in Antiretroviral-Treated HIV-1C Infections 

      Okatch, Harriet; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2006)
    • Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multiassay Algorithms in Estimating HIV Type 1 Subtype C Incidence 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; LeCuyer, Tessa; Wang, Rui; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Weng, Jia; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Bussmann, Hermann; Mine, Madisa; Engelbrecht, Susan; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard G.; Baum, Marianna K.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2014)
      Laboratory cross-sectional assays are useful for the estimation of HIV incidence, but are known to misclassify individuals with long-standing infection as recently infected. The false recent rate (FRR) varies widely across ...
    • Evolutionary Dynamics of HIV-1 Subtype C Accessory and Regulatory Genes in Primary Infection 

      Rossenkhan, Raabya; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Sebunya, TK; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Gashe, BA; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2012)
    • Frequent Intra-Subtype Recombination among HIV-1 Circulating in Tanzania 

      Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      The study estimated the prevalence of HIV-1 intra-subtype recombinant variants among female bar and hotel workers in Tanzania. While intra-subtype recombination occurs in HIV-1, it is generally underestimated. HIV-1 env ...
    • HIV-1 pol Diversity among Female Bar and Hotel Workers in Northern Tanzania 

      Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir; Kituma, Elimsaada; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary F.; Kapiga, Saidi H.; Essex, M. (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      A national ART program was launched in Tanzania in October 2004. Due to the existence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes and recombinant viruses co-circulating in Tanzania, it is important to monitor rates of drug resistance. The ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C Phylodynamics in the Global Epidemic 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Lagakos, Stephen; Essex, Myron Elmer (MDPI AG, 2010)
      The diversity of HIV-1 and its propensity to generate escape mutants present fundamental challenges to control efforts, including HIV vaccine design. Intra-host diversification of HIV is determined by immune responses ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission 

      Baum, Marianna; Thior, Ibou; Asmelash, Aida; Campa, Adriana; van Widenfelt, Erik; Mine, Madisa; Moffat, Claire; Mmalane, Mompati; Gilbert, Peter; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Bussmann, Hermann; Lockman, Shahin; Shapiro, Roger L.; Wester, Carolyn Negley; Wester, C William; Ogwu, Anthony; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard George; Seage, George R.; De Gruttola, Victor Gerard; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      The first aim of the study is to assess the distribution of HIV-1 RNA levels in subtype C infection. Among 4,348 drug-naïve HIV-positive individuals participating in clinical studies in Botswana, the median baseline plasma ...
    • HIV-1 Subtypes and Recombinants in Northern Tanzania: Distribution of Viral Quasispecies 

      Kiwelu, Ireen E.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Manongi, Rachel; Sam, Noel; Shao, John; McLane, Mary Frances; Kapiga, Saidi Hussein; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      This study analyzed the distribution and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes, multiplicity of HIV-1 infection, and frequency of inter-subtype recombination among HIV-1-infected female bar and hotel workers in Moshi, Kilimanjaro ...
    • Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio (MDPI, 2015)
      In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for ...
    • Immunohaematological reference values for HIV-negative healthy adults in Botswana 

      Mine, Madisa; Moyo, Sikhulile; Stevens, Penny; Michael, Kurt; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Asmelash, Aida; Molefhabangwe, S’khatele; Woldegabriel, Elias; Mothowaeng, Gaseboloke; Maruta, Talkmore; Kamhukamwe, Charity; Mangwendeza, Phibeon M.; Holmes-Pretorius, Molly; Mtoni, Isaac; Motswaledi, Modisa; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Ndwapi, Ndwapi; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard G.; Seipone, Khumo; Gaolathe, Tendani; Essex, Myron Elmer (AOSIS, 2011)
      BACKGROUND: Clinical laboratories in Botswana have relied entirely on the reference intervals for normal immunohaematological values provided by manufacturers' kits and textbooks. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to ...
    • Influence of Gag-Protease-Mediated Replication Capacity on Disease Progression in Individuals Recently Infected with HIV-1 Subtype C 

      Wright, J. K.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Brockman, M. A.; Brumme, Z. L.; Brumme, C. J.; Carlson, J. M.; Heckerman, D.; Wang, B.; Losina, E.; Leshwedi, M.; van der Stok, M.; Maphumulo, L.; Mkhwanazi, N.; Chonco, F.; Goulder, P. J. R.; Essex, Myron Elmer; Walker, B. D.; Ndung, T. (American Society for Microbiology, 2011)
      HLA class I-mediated selection of immune escape mutations in functionally important Gag epitopes may partly explain slower disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals with protective HLA alleles. To investigate the ...
    • Linkage of Viral Sequences among HIV-Infected Village Residents in Botswana: Estimation of Linkage Rates in the Presence of Missing Data 

      Carnegie, Nicole Bohme; Wang, Rui; Novitsky, Vladimir; De Gruttola, Victor (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Linkage analysis is useful in investigating disease transmission dynamics and the effect of interventions on them, but estimates of probabilities of linkage between infected people from observed data can be biased downward ...
    • Long-Range HIV Genotyping Using Viral RNA and Proviral DNA for Analysis of HIV Drug Resistance and HIV Clustering 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Zahralban-Steele, Melissa; McLane, Mary Frances; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer (American Society for Microbiology, 2015)
      The goal of the study was to improve the methodology of HIV genotyping for analysis of HIV drug resistance and HIV clustering. Using the protocol of Gall et al. (A. Gall, B. Ferns, C. Morris, S. Watson, M. Cotten, M. ...
    • Magnitude and Frequency of Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Responses: Identification of Immunodominant Regions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Subtype C 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Cao, H.; Rybak, N.; Gilbert, P.; McLane, Mary Frances; Gaolekwe, S.; Peter, T.; Thior, I.; Ndung, T.; Marlink, Richard G.; Lee, Tae Ho; Essex, Myron Elmer (American Society for Microbiology, 2002)
      A systematic analysis of immune responses on a population level is critical for a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine design. Our studies in Botswana on (i) molecular analysis of the HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) ...
    • P20-12. Heterogeneity of Gag Mutational Pathways in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection 

      Lagakos, S; Kebaabetswe, L; Rossenkhan, R; Woldegabriel, E; van Widenfelt, E; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Richard Yun; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer (BioMed Central, 2009)
      Poster presentation
    • Phylodynamic analysis of HIV sub-epidemics in Mochudi, Botswana 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Kühnert, Denise; Moyo, Sikhulile; Widenfelt, Erik; Okui, Lillian; Essex, Myron Elmer (Elsevier BV, 2015)
      Southern Africa continues to be the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This HIV-1 subtype C epidemic has a predominantly heterosexual mode of virus transmission and high (>15%) HIV prevalence among adults. The epidemiological ...
    • Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana 

      Novitsky, Vladimir; Bussmann, Hermann; Logan, Andrew; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Okui, Lillian; Mmalane, Mompati; Baca, Jeannie; Buck, Lauren; Phillips, Eleanor; Tim, David; McLane, Mary Fran; Lei, Quanhong; Wang, Rui; Makhema, Joseph; Lockman, Shahin; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Background: Determining patterns of HIV transmission is increasingly important for the most efficient use of modern prevention interventions. HIV phylogeny can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ...