Now showing items 1-10 of 10

    • Competing Effects of Indirect Protection and Clustering on the Power of Cluster-Randomized Controlled Vaccine Trials 

      Hitchings, Matt David Thomas; Lipsitch, Marc; Wang, Rui; Bellan, Steven E (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2018)
      Power considerations for trials evaluating vaccines against infectious diseases are complicated by indirect protective effects of vaccination. While cluster-randomized controlled trials (cRCTs) are less statistically ...
    • Evaluation of the False Recent Classification Rates of Multiassay Algorithms in Estimating HIV Type 1 Subtype C Incidence 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; LeCuyer, Tessa; Wang, Rui; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Weng, Jia; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Bussmann, Hermann; Mine, Madisa; Engelbrecht, Susan; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard G.; Baum, Marianna K.; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2014)
      Laboratory cross-sectional assays are useful for the estimation of HIV incidence, but are known to misclassify individuals with long-standing infection as recently infected. The false recent rate (FRR) varies widely across ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C Phylodynamics in the Global Epidemic 

      Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Lagakos, Stephen; Essex, Myron Elmer (MDPI AG, 2010)
      The diversity of HIV-1 and its propensity to generate escape mutants present fundamental challenges to control efforts, including HIV vaccine design. Intra-host diversification of HIV is determined by immune responses ...
    • HIV-1 Subtype C-Infected Individuals Maintaining High Viral Load as Potential Targets for the “Test-and-Treat” Approach to Reduce HIV Transmission 

      Baum, Marianna; Thior, Ibou; Asmelash, Aida; Campa, Adriana; van Widenfelt, Erik; Mine, Madisa; Moffat, Claire; Mmalane, Mompati; Gilbert, Peter; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Bussmann, Hermann; Lockman, Shahin; Shapiro, Roger L.; Wester, Carolyn Negley; Wester, C William; Ogwu, Anthony; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Moyo, Sikhulile; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Marlink, Richard George; Seage, George R.; De Gruttola, Victor Gerard; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      The first aim of the study is to assess the distribution of HIV-1 RNA levels in subtype C infection. Among 4,348 drug-naïve HIV-positive individuals participating in clinical studies in Botswana, the median baseline plasma ...
    • Honey’s Ability to Counter Bacterial Infections Arises from Both Bactericidal Compounds and QS Inhibition 

      Wang, Rui; Starkey, Melissa; Hazan, Ronen N.; Rahme, Laurence G. (Frontiers Research Foundation, 2012)
      The ability of honey to kill bacterial pathogens in vitro and quickly clear even chronic or drug-resistant infections has been demonstrated by several studies. Most current research is focused on identifying the bactericidal ...
    • Linkage of Viral Sequences among HIV-Infected Village Residents in Botswana: Estimation of Linkage Rates in the Presence of Missing Data 

      Carnegie, Nicole Bohme; Wang, Rui; Novitsky, Vladimir; De Gruttola, Victor (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Linkage analysis is useful in investigating disease transmission dynamics and the effect of interventions on them, but estimates of probabilities of linkage between infected people from observed data can be biased downward ...
    • Phylogenetic Relatedness of Circulating HIV-1C Variants in Mochudi, Botswana 

      Novitsky, Vladimir; Bussmann, Hermann; Logan, Andrew; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Okui, Lillian; Mmalane, Mompati; Baca, Jeannie; Buck, Lauren; Phillips, Eleanor; Tim, David; McLane, Mary Fran; Lei, Quanhong; Wang, Rui; Makhema, Joseph; Lockman, Shahin; DeGruttola, Victor; Essex, M. (Public Library of Science, 2013)
      Background: Determining patterns of HIV transmission is increasingly important for the most efficient use of modern prevention interventions. HIV phylogeny can provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying ...
    • Short Communication: Effect of Short-Course Antenatal Zidovudine and Single-Dose Nevirapine on the BED Capture Enzyme Immunoassay Levels in HIV Type 1 Subtype C Infection 

      Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Moyo, Sikhulile; Pain, Debanjan; Barr, Christopher D.; Maruapula, Dorcas; Mongwato, Dineo; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Essex, Myron Elmer (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2013)
      Cross-sectional prevalence studies based on immunoassays that discriminate between recent and long-term infections, such as the BED assay, have been widely used to estimate HIV incidence. However, individuals receiving ...
    • Timing Constraints of In Vivo Gag Mutations during Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection 

      Kebaabetswe, Lemme; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Bonney, Caitlin; Herzig, Michaela; Nkwe, David; Woldegabriel, Elias; van Widenfelt, Erik; Lagakos, Stephen; Zhang, Linqi; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Moyo, Sikhulile; Musonda, Rosemary Mubanga; Makhema, Joseph Moeketsi; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2009)
      Background: Aiming to answer the broad question “When does mutation occur?” this study examined the time of appearance, dominance, and completeness of in vivo Gag mutations in primary HIV-1 subtype C infection. Methods: A ...
    • Transmission of Single and Multiple Viral Variants in Primary HIV-1 Subtype C Infection 

      Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Vartanian, Jean-Pierre; Novitsky, Vladimir A.; Wang, Rui; Margolin, Lauren; Baca, Jeannie; Rossenkhan, Raabya; Essex, Myron Elmer (Public Library of Science, 2011)
      To address whether sequences of viral gag and env quasispecies collected during the early post-acute period can be utilized to determine multiplicity of transmitted HIV's, recently developed approaches for analysis of viral ...