Now showing items 21-40 of 108

    • Direct Reciprocity with Costly Punishment: Generous Tit-for-Tat Prevails 

      Rand, David Gertler; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A. (Elsevier, 2009)
      The standard model for direct reciprocity is the repeated Prisoner's Dilemma, where in each round players choose between cooperation and defection. Here we extend the standard framework to include costly punishment. Now ...
    • Dynamics of HIV treatment and social contagion 

      Hill, Alison Lynn (2013-10-08)
      Modern-day management of infectious diseases is critically linked to the use of mathematical models to understand and predict dynamics at many levels, from the mechanisms of pathogenesis to the patterns of population-wide ...
    • Dynamics of infection, mutation, and eradication, in HIV and other evolving populations 

      Rosenbloom, Daniel Scholes (2013-10-08)
      This work uses mathematical models of evolutionary dynamics to address clinical questions about HIV treatment, public health questions about vaccination, and theoretical questions about evolution of high mutation rates.
    • Dynamics of prebiotic RNA reproduction illuminated by chemical game theory 

      Yeates, Jessica A. M.; Hilbe, Christian; Zwick, Martin; Nowak, Martin A.; Lehman, Niles (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016)
      Many origins-of-life scenarios depict a situation in which there are common and potentially scarce resources needed by molecules that compete for survival and reproduction. The dynamics of RNA assembly in a complex mixture ...
    • The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression 

      Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin Isaac; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A. (Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013)
      Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting ...
    • Emergence of Cooperation and Evolutionary Stability in Finite Populations 

      Nowak, Martin; Sasaki, Akira; Taylor, Christine; Fudenberg, Drew (Nature Publishing Group, 2004)
      To explain the evolution of cooperation by natural selection has been a major goal of biologists since Darwin. Cooperators help others at a cost to themselves, while defectors receive the benefits of altruism without ...
    • Emotions as infectious diseases in a large social network: the SISa model 

      Hill, Alison Lynn; Rand, David Gertler; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, N (The Royal Society, 2010)
      Human populations are arranged in social networks that determine interactions and influence the spread of diseases, behaviours and ideas. We evaluate the spread of long-term emotional states across a social network. We ...
    • Evolution and emergence of infectious diseases in theoretical and real-world networks 

      Leventhal, Gabriel E.; Hill, Alison L.; Nowak, Martin A.; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian (Nature Pub. Group, 2015)
      One of the most important advancements in theoretical epidemiology has been the development of methods that account for realistic host population structure. The central finding is that heterogeneity in contact networks, ...
    • The Evolution of Antisocial Punishment in Optional Public Goods Games 

      Rand, David Gertler; Nowak, Martin A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2011)
      Cooperation, where one individual incurs a cost to help another, is a fundamental building block of the natural world and human society. It has been suggested that costly punishment can promote the evolution of cooperation, ...
    • The Evolution of Cell-to-Cell Communication in a Sporulating Bacterium 

      van Gestel, Jordi; Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Traditionally microorganisms were considered to be autonomous organisms that could be studied in isolation. However, over the last decades cell-to-cell communication has been found to be ubiquitous. By secreting molecular ...
    • Evolution of Cooperation by Phenotypic Similarity 

      Antal, Tibor; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Wakeley, John R.; Taylor, Peter D.; Nowak, Martin A. (National Academy of Sciences, 2009)
      The emergence of cooperation in populations of selfish individuals is a fascinating topic that has inspired much work in theoretical biology. Here, we study the evolution of cooperation in a model where individuals are ...
    • The Evolution of Homophily 

      Fu, Feng; Nowak, Martin A.; Christakis, Nicholas Alexander; Fowler, James H. (Nature Publishing Group, 2012)
      Biologists have devoted much attention to assortative mating or homogamy, the tendency for sexual species to mate with similar others. In contrast, there has been little theoretical work on the broader phenomenon of ...
    • Evolution of In-Group Favoritism 

      Fu, Feng; Tarnita, Corina Elena; Christakis, Nicholas Alexander; Wang, Long; Rand, David Gertler; Nowak, Martin A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2012)
      In-group favoritism is a central aspect of human behavior. People often help members of their own group more than members of other groups. Here we propose a mathematical framework for the evolution of in-group favoritism ...
    • The evolution of non-reproductive workers in insect colonies with haplodiploid genetics 

      Olejarz, Jason W; Allen, Benjamin; Veller, Carl; Nowak, Martin A (eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 2015)
      Eusociality is a distinct form of biological organization. A key characteristic of advanced eusociality is the presence of non-reproductive workers. Why evolution should produce organisms that sacrifice their own reproductive ...
    • Evolution: Selection For Positive Illusions 

      van Veelen, Matthijs; Nowak, Martin A. (Nature Publishing Group, 2011)
      Everybody knows that overconfidence can be foolhardy. But a study reveals that having an overly positive self-image might confer an evolutionary advantage if the rewards outweigh the risks.
    • Evolutionary Cycles of Cooperation and Defection 

      Imhof, Lorens A.; Fudenberg, Drew; Nowak, Martin A. (National Academy of Sciences, 2005)
      The main obstacle for the evolution of cooperation is that natural selection favors defection in most settings. In the repeated prisoner's dilemma, two individuals interact several times, and, in each round, they have a ...
    • Evolutionary Dynamics in Set Structured Populations 

      Tarnita, Corina Elena; Antal, Tibor; Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Nowak, Martin A. (National Academy of Sciences, 2009)
      Evolutionary dynamics are strongly affected by population structure. The outcome of an evolutionary process in a well-mixed population can be very different from that in a structured population. We introduce a powerful ...
    • Evolutionary Dynamics in Structured Populations 

      Nowak, Martin A.; Tarnita, Corina E.; Antal, Tibor (The Royal Society, 2010)
      Evolutionary dynamics shape the living world around us. At the centre of every evolutionary process is a population of reproducing individuals. The structure of that population affects evolutionary dynamics. The individuals ...
    • Evolutionary dynamics of cancer in response to targeted combination therapy 

      Bozic, Ivana; Reiter, Johannes G; Allen, Benjamin; Antal, Tibor; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Shah, Preya; Moon, Yo Sup; Yaqubie, Amin; Kelly, Nicole; Le, Dung T; Lipson, Evan J; Chapman, Paul B; Diaz, Luis A; Vogelstein, Bert; Nowak, Martin A (eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 2013)
      In solid tumors, targeted treatments can lead to dramatic regressions, but responses are often short-lived because resistant cancer cells arise. The major strategy proposed for overcoming resistance is combination therapy. ...
    • Evolutionary Dynamics on Graphs: Efficient Method for Weak Selection 

      Fu, Feng; Wang, Long; Nowak, Martin A.; Hauert, Christoph (American Physical Society, 2009)
      Investigating the evolutionary dynamics of game theoretical interactions in populations where individuals are arranged on a graph can be challenging in terms of computation time. Here, we propose an efficient method to ...