Now showing items 603-622 of 42363

    • Adaptive Radiation, Ecological Opportunity, and Evolutionary Determinism 

      Losos, Jonathan (University of Chicago, 2010)
      Adaptive radiation refers to diversification from an ancestral species that produces descendants adapted to use a great variety of distinct ecological niches. In this review, I examine two aspects of adaptive radiation: ...
    • Adaptive Radiation: Contrasting Theory with Data 

      Gavrilets, Sergey; Losos, Jonathan (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2009)
      Biologists have long been fascinated by the exceptionally high diversity displayed by some evolutionary groups. Adaptive radiation in such clades is not only spectacular, but is also an extremely complex process influenced ...
    • An adaptive reduction algorithm for efficient chemical calculations in global atmospheric chemistry models 

      Santillana, Mauricio; Le Sager, Philippe; Jacob, Daniel James; Brenner, Michael P. (Elsevier BV, 2010)
      We present a computationally efficient adaptive method for calculating the time evolution of the concentrations of chemical species in global 3-D models of atmospheric chemistry. Our strategy consists of partitioning the ...
    • Adaptive Remodelling by FliN in the Bacterial Rotary Motor 

      Branch, Richard; Sayegh, Michael; Shen, Chong; Nathan, Vedavalli S.J.; Berg, Howard Curtis (Elsevier BV, 2014)
      Sensory adaptation in the Escherichia coli chemosensory pathway has been the subject of interest for decades, with investigation focusing on the receptors that process extracellular inputs. Recent studies demonstrate that ...
    • Adaptive Reptile Color Variation and the Evolution of the MC1R Gene 

      Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Hoekstra, Hopi E.; Nachman, Michael W. (The Society for the Study of Evolution, 2004)
      The wealth of information on the genetics of pigmentation and the clear fitness consequences of many pigmentation phenotypes provide an opportunity to study the molecular basis of an ecologically important trait. The ...
    • Adaptive Resistance in Bacteria Requires Epigenetic Inheritance, Genetic Noise, and Cost of Efflux Pumps 

      Motta, Santiago Sandoval; Cluzel, Philippe; Aldana, Maximino (Public Library of Science, 2015)
      Adaptive resistance emerges when populations of bacteria are subjected to gradual increases of antibiotics. It is characterized by a rapid emergence of resistance and fast reversibility to the non-resistant phenotype when ...
    • Adaptive resistance of melanoma cells to RAF inhibition via reversible induction of a slowly dividing de‐differentiated state 

      Fallahi‐Sichani, Mohammad; Becker, Verena; Izar, Benjamin; Baker, Gregory J; Lin, Jia‐Ren; Boswell, Sarah A; Shah, Parin; Rotem, Asaf; Garraway, Levi A; Sorger, Peter K (John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2017)
      Abstract Treatment of BRAF‐mutant melanomas with MAP kinase pathway inhibitors is paradigmatic of the promise of precision cancer therapy but also highlights problems with drug resistance that limit patient benefit. We use ...
    • Adaptive resistance to therapeutic PD-1 blockade is associated with upregulation of alternative immune checkpoints 

      Koyama, Shohei; Akbay, Esra A.; Li, Yvonne Y.; Herter-Sprie, Grit S.; Buczkowski, Kevin A.; Richards, William G.; Gandhi, Leena; Redig, Amanda J.; Rodig, Scott J.; Asahina, Hajime; Jones, Robert E.; Kulkarni, Meghana M.; Kuraguchi, Mari; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Fecci, Peter E.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Janne, Pasi A.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Gangadharan, Sidharta P.; Costa, Daniel B.; Freeman, Gordon J.; Bueno, Raphael; Hodi, F. Stephen; Dranoff, Glenn; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Hammerman, Peter S. (Nature Publishing Group, 2016)
      Despite compelling antitumour activity of antibodies targeting the programmed death 1 (PD-1): programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint in lung cancer, resistance to these therapies has increasingly been observed. ...
    • Adaptive servoventilation versus oxygen therapy for sleep disordered breathing in patients with heart failure: a randomised trial 

      Murase, Kimihiko; Ono, Koh; Yoneda, Tomoya; Iguchi, Moritake; Yokomatsu, Takafumi; Mizoguchi, Tetsu; Izumi, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Miki, Shinji; Nohara, Ryuji; Ueshima, Kenji; Mishima, Michiaki; Kimura, Takeshi; White, David P; Chin, Kazuo (BMJ Publishing Group, 2016)
      Background: Both adaptive servoventilation (ASV) and nocturnal oxygen therapy improve sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but their effects on cardiac parameters have not been compared systematically. Methods and results 43 ...
    • Adaptive State Capitalism in the Indian Coal Industry 

      Chandra, Rohit (2018-05-15)
      Adaptive State Capitalism refers to a set of characteristics (bureaucratic discretion, operational capacity, resource self-sufficiency, political influence, and ability to push for rule changes) manifested in state-owned ...
    • Adaptive Use of Bubble Wrap for Storing Liquid Samples and Performing Analytical Assays 

      Bwambok, David K.; Christodouleas, Dionysios; Morin, Stephen A.; Lange, Heiko; Phillips, Scott T.; Whitesides, George McClelland (American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014)
      This paper demonstrates that the gas-filled compartments in the packing material commonly called “bubble wrap” can be repurposed in resource-limited regions as containers to store liquid samples, and to perform bioanalyses. ...
    • The adaptive variant EDARV370A is associated with straight hair in East Asians 

      Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Tang, Kun; Sabeti, Pardis Christine; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia (Springer Science + Business Media, 2013)
      Hair straightness/curliness is a highly heritable trait amongst human populations. Previous studies have reported European specific genetic variants influencing hair straightness, but those in East Asians remain unknown. ...
    • Adaptive Variation in Beach Mice Produced by Two Interacting Pigmentation Genes 

      Steiner, Cynthia C; Weber, Jesse N; Hoekstra, Hopi (Public Library of Science, 2007)
      Little is known about the genetic basis of ecologically important morphological variation such as the diverse color patterns of mammals. Here we identify genetic changes contributing to an adaptive difference in color ...
    • Adatom registry on Si(111)-(√3 × √3 )R30°-B 

      Bedrossian, P.; Mortensen, K.; Chen, D. M.; Golovchenko, Jene Andrew (American Physical Society (APS), 1990)
      We have used tunneling microscopy to determine the binding site of adatoms on Si(111)-(√3 × √3 )R30° stabilized by surface boron doping. The adatoms are found to occupy the T4 binding site, regardless of either the local ...
    • ADCC Develops Over Time during Persistent Infection with Live-Attenuated SIV and Is Associated with Complete Protection against \(SIV_{mac}251\) Challenge 

      Alpert, Michael D.; Harvey, Jackson D.; Piatak, Michael; Carville, Angela; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Li, Wenjun; Lauer, William A.; Reeves, Roger Keith; Mansfield, Keith G.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.; Johnson, R. Paul; Evans, David T. (Public Library of Science, 2012)
      Live-attenuated strains of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) routinely confer apparent sterilizing immunity against pathogenic SIV challenge in rhesus macaques. Understanding the mechanisms of protection by live-attenuated ...
    • Add-on LABA in a separate inhaler as asthma step-up therapy versus increased dose of ICS or ICS/LABA combination inhaler 

      Price, David B.; Colice, Gene; Israel, Elliot; Roche, Nicolas; Postma, Dirkje S.; Guilbert, Theresa W.; van Aalderen, Willem M.C.; Grigg, Jonathan; Hillyer, Elizabeth V.; Thomas, Victoria; Martin, Richard J. (European Respiratory Society, 2016)
      Asthma management guidelines recommend adding a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) or increasing the dose of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) as step-up therapy for patients with uncontrolled asthma on ICS monotherapy. However, it ...
    • Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel 

      Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F.; Acebal, Maria L.; Assa’ad, Amal; Baker, James R.; Beck, Lisa A.; Block, Julie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Chan, Edmond S.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Fleischer, David M.; Fuchs, George J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Greenhawt, Matthew J.; Gupta, Ruchi S.; Habich, Michele; Jones, Stacie M.; Keaton, Kari; Muraro, Antonella; Plaut, Marshall; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Rotrosen, Daniel; Sampson, Hugh A.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sidbury, Robert; Spergel, Jonathan; Stukus, David R.; Venter, Carina; Boyce, Joshua A. (BioMed Central, 2017)
      Background: Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute ...
    • Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases–sponsored expert panel 

      Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F.; Acebal, Maria L.; Assa’ad, Amal; Baker, James R.; Beck, Lisa A.; Block, Julie; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Chan, Edmond S.; Eichenfield, Lawrence F.; Fleischer, David M.; Fuchs, George J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Greenhawt, Matthew J.; Gupta, Ruchi S.; Habich, Michele; Jones, Stacie M.; Keaton, Kari; Muraro, Antonella; Plaut, Marshall; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.; Rotrosen, Daniel; Sampson, Hugh A.; Schneider, Lynda C.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Sidbury, Robert; Spergel, Jonathan; Stukus, David R.; Venter, Carina; Boyce, Joshua A. (BioMed Central, 2017)
      Background: Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute ...
    • Addicted to Dollars 

      Reinhart, Carmen; Rogoff, Kenneth; Savastano, Miguel (2014)
      Many emerging market economies are dollarized in varying degrees. How important is this for the conduct of monetary policy and choice of exchange rate regime? We propose a composite measure of dollarization, identify its ...
    • Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey 

      Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro (Public Library of Science, 2014)
      Background: A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account ...