Now showing items 41934-41953 of 56596

    • R X C Ecological Inference: Bounds, Correlations, Flexibility, and Transparency of Assumptions 

      Greiner, Daniel James; Quinn, Kevin (Royal Statistical Society, 2009)
      Despite its potential pitfalls, ecological inference is an unavoidable part of some quantitative settings, including US voting rights litigation. In such applications, the analyst will typically encounter two-way tables ...
    • R&D Costs and Productivity in Biopharmaceuticals 

      Scherer, Frederic Michael (John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, 2011)
      This article characterizes the activities required to launch a new pharmaceutical molecule into the market, summarizes studies that have attempted to pinpoint the research and development costs incurred per approved new ...
    • R&D Tax Incentives: Growth Panacea or Budget Trojan Horse? 

      Shay, Stephen E.; Fleming, J. Clifton; Peroni, Robert J. (New York University Law School, 2016)
      Research and development (R&D) activity has long held a privileged place in the U.S. income tax system and in policy debates. The premises for R&D tax incentives, however, are grounded in theory regarding a market failure ...
    • r(equivalent): A Simple Effect Size Indicator 

      Rosenthal, Robert; Rubin, Donald B. (American Psychological Association, 2003)
      The purpose of this article is to propose a simple effect size estimate (obtained from the sample size, N, and a p value) that can be used (a) in meta-analytic research where only sample sizes and p values have been reported ...
    • R-Code a Very Capable Virtual Computer 

      Walton, Robert L. (1995)
      This thesis investigates the design of a machine independent virtual computer, the R-CODE computer, for use as a target by high level language compilers. Unlike previous machine independent targets, R-CODE provides higher ...
    • The r-endings of the IE middle 

      Jasanoff, Jay H. (Harrassowitz Verlag, 1977)
    • R-Flurbiprofen Reduces Neuropathic Pain in Rodents by Restoring Endogenous Cannabinoids 

      Bishay, Philipp; Schmidt, Helmut; Marian, Claudiu; Häussler, Annett; Wijnvoord, Nina; Ziebell, Simone; Metzner, Julia; Koch, Marco; Myrczek, Thekla; Bechmann, Ingo; Kuner, Rohini; Dehghani, Faramarz; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard; Costigan, Michael (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      Background: R-flurbiprofen, one of the enantiomers of flurbiprofen racemate, is inactive with respect to cyclooxygenase inhibition, but shows analgesic properties without relevant toxicity. Its mode of action is still ...
    • An R-Process Kilonova Associated With the Short-Hard Grb 130603b 

      Berger, Edo; Fong, W; Chornock, R (IOP Publishing, 2013)
      We present ground-based optical and Hubble Space Telescope optical and near-IR observations of the shorthard GRB 130603B at z = 0.356, which demonstrate the presence of excess near-IR emission matching the expected brightness ...
    • R2 corrections for 5D black holes and rings 

      Guica, Monica; Huang, Lisa; Li, Wei; Strominger, Andrew (Springer Verlag, 2006)
      We study higher-order corrections to two BPS solutions of 5D supergravity, namely the supersymmetric black ring and the spinning black hole. Due to our current relatively limited understanding of F-type terms in 5D ...
    • R5 Clade C SHIV Strains with Tier 1 or 2 Neutralization Sensitivity: Tools to Dissect Env Evolution and to Develop AIDS Vaccines in Primate Models 

      Wassermann, Klemens J.; Song, Ruijiang; Wang, Wendy; Kramer, Victor G.; Novembre, Francis J.; Villinger, François; Else, James G.; Montefiori, David C.; Watkins, Jennifer D; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Lakhashe, Samir; Santosuosso, Michael Robert; Poznansky, Mark; Rasmussen, Robert Anthony; Ruprecht, Ruth Margrit (Public Library of Science, 2010)
      Background: HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C) predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb) responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current ...
    • R5-SHIV Induces Multiple Defects in T Cell Function during Early Infection of Rhesus Macaques Including Accumulation of T Reg Cells in Lymph Nodes 

      Righi, Elda; Leblanc, Pierre R.; Kodish, Brett; Mylvaganam, Hari N.; Stevceva, Liljana; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Chenine, Agnes-L.; Hovav, Avi-Hai; Unutmaz, Derya; Santosuosso, Michael Robert; Siddappa, Nagadenahalli B.; Ghebremichael, Musie Syum; Ruprecht, Ruth Margrit; Poznansky, Mark; Hill, David E. (Public Library of Science, 2011)
      Background: HIV-1 is a pathogen that T cell responses fail to control. HIV-1gp120 is the surface viral envelope glycoprotein that interacts with CD4 T cells and mediates entry. HIV-1gp120 has been implicated in immune ...
    • The Rab2A GTPase Promotes Breast Cancer Stem Cells and Tumorigenesis via Erk Signaling Activation 

      Luo, Man-Li; Gong, Chang; Chen, Chun-Hau; Hu, Hai; Huang, Pengyu; Zheng, Min; Yao, Yandan; Wei, Shuo; Wulf, Gerburg; Lieberman, Judy; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Song, Erwei; Lu, Kun Ping (2015)
      SUMMARY Proline-directed phosphorylation is regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1, which plays a fundamental role in driving breast cancer stem-like cells (BCSCs). Rab2A is a small GTPase critical for vesicle trafficking. ...
    • The RAB39B p.G192R mutation causes X-linked dominant Parkinson’s disease 

      Mata, Ignacio F.; Jang, Yongwoo; Kim, Chun-Hyung; Hanna, David S.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Samii, Ali; Agarwal, Pinky; Roberts, John W.; Klepitskaya, Olga; Shprecher, David R.; Chung, Kathryn A.; Factor, Stewart A.; Espay, Alberto J.; Revilla, Fredy J.; Higgins, Donald S.; Litvan, Irene; Leverenz, James B.; Yearout, Dora; Inca-Martinez, Miguel; Martinez, Erica; Thompson, Tiffany R.; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Hu, Shu-Ching; Edwards, Karen L.; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Zabetian, Cyrus P. (BioMed Central, 2015)
      Objective: To identify the causal gene in a multi-incident U.S. kindred with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: We characterized a family with a classical PD phenotype in which 7 individuals (5 males and 2 females) were ...
    • A Rab3a-dependent complex essential for lysosome positioning and plasma membrane repair 

      Encarnação, Marisa; Espada, Lília; Escrevente, Cristina; Mateus, Denisa; Ramalho, José; Michelet, Xavier; Santarino, Inês; Hsu, Victor W.; Brenner, Michael B.; Barral, Duarte C.; Vieira, Otília V. (The Rockefeller University Press, 2016)
      Lysosome exocytosis plays a major role in resealing plasma membrane (PM) disruptions. This process involves two sequential steps. First, lysosomes are recruited to the periphery of the cell and then fuse with the damaged ...
    • RabGDI Controls Axonal Midline Crossing by Regulating Robo1 Surface Expression 

      Philipp, Melanie; Niederkofler, Vera; Debrunner, Marc; Alther, Tobias; Kunz, Beat; Stoeckli, Esther T (BioMed Central, 2012)
      Background: Axons navigate to their future synaptic targets with the help of choice points, intermediate targets that express axon guidance cues. Once they reach a choice point, axons need to switch their response from ...
    • Rabies Glycoprotein-Mediated Uptake Into Epithelial Cells and Compartmentalized Primary Neuronal Culture 

      Piccinotti, Silvia (2015-09-29)
      Rabies virus (RABV) subverts host neuronal circuitry to gain access to the brain where it causes generally incurable, lethal encephalitis. The single glycoprotein (G) dictates two defining steps for infection and neuroinvasion: ...
    • Rabies Internalizes into Primary Peripheral Neurons via Clathrin Coated Pits and Requires Fusion at the Cell Body 

      Piccinotti, Silvia; Whelan, Sean P. J. (Public Library of Science, 2016)
      The single glycoprotein (G) of rabies virus (RABV) dictates all viral entry steps from receptor engagement to membrane fusion. To study the uptake of RABV into primary neuronal cells in culture, we generated a recombinant ...
    • Rabin8 Protein Interacts with GTPase Rheb and Inhibits Phosphorylation of Ser235/Ser236 in Small Ribosomal Subunit Protein S6 

      Parkhitko, А.А.; Favorova, О.О.; Henske, Elizabeth Petri (A.I. Gordeyev, 2011)
      The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine kinase that in association with Raptor, mLST8, PRAS40 and Deptor forms a complex (mTORC1) playing the key role in the regulation of protein biosynthesis, ...
    • Rac GTPases in Human Diseases 

      Pai, Sung-Yun; Kim, Chaekyun; Williams, David A. (IOS Press, 2010)
      Rho GTPases are members of the Ras superfamily of GTPases that regulate a wide variety of cellular functions. While Rho GTPase pathways have been implicated in various pathological conditions in humans, to date coding ...
    • Rac1-mediated membrane raft localization of PI3K/p110β is required for its activation by GPCRs or PTEN loss 

      Cizmecioglu, Onur; Ni, Jing; Xie, Shaozhen; Zhao, Jean J; Roberts, Thomas M (eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 2016)
      We aimed to understand how spatial compartmentalization in the plasma membrane might contribute to the functions of the ubiquitous class IA phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) isoforms, p110α and p110β. We found that p110β ...