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dc.contributor.authorLu, Xi
dc.contributor.authorMcElroy, Michael Brendon
dc.contributor.authorSluzas, Nora A.
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-06T15:38:32Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationLu, Xi, Michael B. McElroy, and Nora A. Sluzas. 2011. Costs for integrating wind into the future ERCOT system with related costs for savings in \(CO_2\) emissions. Environmental Science and Technology 45(7): 3160-3166.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0013-936Xen_US
dc.identifier.issn1520-5851en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10001143
dc.description.abstractWind power can make an important contribution to the goal of reducing emissions of \(CO_2\). The major problem relates to the intrinsic variability of the source and the difficulty of reconciling the supply of electricity with demand particularly at high levels of wind penetration. This challenge is explored for the case of the ERCOT system in Texas. Demand for electricity in Texas is projected to increase by approximately 60% by 2030. Considering hourly load data reported for 2006, assuming that the pattern of demand in 2030 should be similar to 2006, and adopting as a business as usual (BAU) reference an assumption that the anticipated additional electricity should be supplied by a combination of coal and gas with prices, discounted to 2007 dollars of $2 and $6 per MMBTU respectively, we conclude that the bus-bar price for electricity would increase by about 1.1¢/kWh at a wind penetration level of 30%, by about 3.4¢/kWh at a penetration level of 80%. Corresponding costs for reductions in \(CO_2\) range from $20/ton to $60/ton. A number of possibilities are discussed that could contribute to a reduction in these costs including the impact of an expanded future fleet of electrically driven vehicles.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipEngineering and Applied Sciencesen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi: 10.1021/es103948ten_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.subjectinclusion of wind in the ERCOT systemen_US
dc.subjectvariability of winden_US
dc.subjectCO\(_2\) savings and costsen_US
dc.titleCosts for Integrating Wind into the Future ERCOT System with Related Costs for Savings in \(CO_2\) Emissionsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAuthor's Originalen_US
dc.relation.journalEnvironmental Science and Technologyen_US
dash.depositing.authorMcElroy, Michael Brendon
dc.date.available2012-12-06T15:38:32Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/es103948t*
dash.contributor.affiliatedMcElroy, Michael
dash.contributor.affiliatedLu, Xi


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