Nicorandil Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Vascular Endothelial Damage and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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Nicorandil Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Vascular Endothelial Damage and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

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Title: Nicorandil Attenuates Monocrotaline-Induced Vascular Endothelial Damage and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension
Author: Sata, Masataka; Morita, Toshihiro; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Sahara, Makoto

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Citation: Sahara, Makoto, Masataka Sata, Toshihiro Morita, Yasunobu Hirata, and Ryozo Nagai. 2012. Nicorandil attenuates monocrotaline-induced vascular endothelial damage and pulmonary arterial hypertension. PLoS ONE 7(3): e33367.
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Abstract: Background: An antianginal KATP channel opener nicorandil has various beneficial effects on cardiovascular systems; however, its effects on pulmonary vasculature under pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we attempted to determine whether nicorandil can attenuate monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg MCT were randomized to receive either vehicle; nicorandil (5.0 mg·kg\(^{−1}\)·day\(^{−1}\)) alone; or nicorandil as well as either a K\(_{ATP}\) channel blocker glibenclamide or a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor N\(^{\omega}\)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), from immediately or 21 days after MCT injection. Four or five weeks later, right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured, and lung tissue was harvested. Also, we evaluated the nicorandil-induced anti-apoptotic effects and activation status of several molecules in cell survival signaling pathway in vitro using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results: Four weeks after MCT injection, RVSP was significantly increased in the vehicle-treated group (51.0\(\pm\)4.7 mm Hg), whereas it was attenuated by nicorandil treatment (33.2\(\pm\)3.9 mm Hg; P<0.01). Nicorandil protected pulmonary endothelium from the MCT-induced thromboemboli formation and induction of apoptosis, accompanied with both upregulation of endothelial NOS (eNOS) expression and downregulation of cleaved caspase-3 expression. Late treatment with nicorandil for the established PAH was also effective in suppressing the additional progression of PAH. These beneficial effects of nicorandil were blocked similarly by glibenclamide and l-NAME. Next, HUVECs were incubated in serum-free medium and then exhibited apoptotic morphology, while these changes were significantly attenuated by nicorandil administration. Nicorandil activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in HUVECs, accompanied with the upregulation of both eNOS and Bcl-2 expression. Conclusions: Nicorandil attenuated MCT-induced vascular endothelial damage and PAH through production of eNOS and anti-apoptotic factors, suggesting that nicorandil might have a promising therapeutic potential for PAH.
Published Version: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0033367
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3316574/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10344716
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