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dc.contributor.authorRapoport, Benjamin Isaac
dc.contributor.authorKedzierski, Jakub T.
dc.contributor.authorSarpeshkar, Rahul
dc.date.accessioned2013-03-15T20:54:11Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationRapoport, Benjamin I., Jakub T. Kedzierski, and Rahul Sarpeshkar. 2012. A glucose fuel cell for implantable brain–machine interfaces. PLoS ONE 7(6): e38436.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10423819
dc.description.abstractWe have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing 3.4 \(\mu\)W cm\(^{-2}\) steady-state power and up to 180 \(\mu\)W cm\(^{-2}\) peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain–machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units powered or recharged by glucose fuel cells.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0038436en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3373597/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectBiologyen_US
dc.subjectBiochemistryen_US
dc.subjectBioenergeticsen_US
dc.subjectBiotechnologyen_US
dc.subjectBioengineeringen_US
dc.subjectNeuroscienceen_US
dc.subjectNeurophysiologyen_US
dc.subjectEngineeringen_US
dc.subjectBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectElectronics Engineeringen_US
dc.subjectMedicineen_US
dc.subjectAnatomy and Physiologyen_US
dc.subjectFluid Physiologyen_US
dc.subjectNeurological Systemen_US
dc.subjectNeurologyen_US
dc.titleA Glucose Fuel Cell for Implantable Brain–Machine Interfacesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dash.depositing.authorRapoport, Benjamin Isaac
dc.date.available2013-03-15T20:54:11Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0038436*
dash.contributor.affiliatedRapoport, Benjamin Isaac


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