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dc.contributor.authorLagiou, Pagona
dc.contributor.authorSandin, Sven
dc.contributor.authorLof, Marie
dc.contributor.authorTrichopoulos, Dimitrios
dc.contributor.authorAdami, Hans-Olov
dc.contributor.authorWeiderpass, Elisabete
dc.date.accessioned2013-03-18T18:47:47Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationLagiou, Pagona, Sven Sandin, Marie Lof, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Hans-Olov Adami, and Elisabete Weiderpass. 2012. Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in swedish women: prospective cohort study. BMJ : British Medical Journal 344.en_US
dc.identifier.issn0959-8138en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10436287
dc.description.abstractObjective: To study the long term consequences of low carbohydrate diets, generally characterised by concomitant increases in protein intake, on cardiovascular health. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Uppsala, Sweden. Participants From a random population sample, 43 396 Swedish women, aged 30-49 years at baseline, completed an extensive dietary questionnaire and were followed-up for an average of 15.7 years. Main outcome measures Association of incident cardiovascular diseases (ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries), overall and by diagnostic category, with decreasing carbohydrate intake (in tenths), increasing protein intake (in tenths), and an additive combination of these variables (low carbohydrate-high protein score, from 2 to 20), adjusted for intake of energy, intake of saturated and unsaturated fat, and several non-dietary variables. Results: A one tenth decrease in carbohydrate intake or increase in protein intake or a 2 unit increase in the low carbohydrate-high protein score were all statistically significantly associated with increasing incidence of cardiovascular disease overall (n=1270)—incidence rate ratio estimates 1.04 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.08), 1.04 (1.02 to 1.06), and 1.05 (1.02 to 1.08). No heterogeneity existed in the association of any of these scores with the five studied cardiovascular outcomes: ischaemic heart disease (n=703), ischaemic stroke (n=294), haemorrhagic stroke (n=70), subarachnoid haemorrhage (n=121), and peripheral arterial disease (n=82). Conclusions: Low carbohydrate-high protein diets, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates or the source of proteins, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherBMJ Publishing Group Ltd.en_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1136/bmj.e4026en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3383863/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectEpidemiologic Studiesen_US
dc.subjectDrugs: Cardiovascular Systemen_US
dc.subjectStrokeen_US
dc.subjectDieten_US
dc.subjectIschaemic Heart Diseaseen_US
dc.titleLow carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort studyen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalBMJ : British Medical Journalen_US
dash.depositing.authorLagiou, Pagona
dc.date.available2013-03-18T18:47:47Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1136/bmj.e4026*
dash.contributor.affiliatedLagiou, Pagona
dash.contributor.affiliatedTrichopoulos, Dimitrios
dash.contributor.affiliatedAdami, Hans-Olov


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