Innate immune activation in neonatal tracheal aspirates suggests endotoxin-driven inflammation
Mancuso, Christy J.
Philbin, Victoria J.
Phillips, Michele F.
Palmer, Christine D.
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CitationNathe, Katheryn E., Christy J. Mancuso, Richard Parad, Linda J. Van Marter, Camilia R. Martin, Liat Stoler-Barak, Victoria J. Philbin, Michele F. Phillips, Christine D. Palmer, and Ofer Levy. 2012. Innate immune activation in neonatal tracheal aspirates suggests endotoxin-driven inflammation. Pediatric Research 72(2): 203-211.
AbstractBackground:: Tracheal aspirates (TAs) from critically ill neonates accumulate bacterial endotoxin and demonstrate mobilization of endotoxin-binding proteins, but the potential bioactivity of endotoxin in TAs is unknown. We characterized innate immune activation in TAs of mechanically ventilated neonates. Methods: Innate immune activation in TAs of mechanically ventilated neonates was characterized using a targeted 84-gene quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR array. Protein expression of cytokines was confirmed by multiplex assay. Expression and localization of the endotoxin-inducible antimicrobial protein Calgranulin C (S100A12) was assessed by flow cytometry. Endotoxin levels were measured in TA supernatants using the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay. Results:: Analyses by qRT-PCR demonstrated expression of pattern recognition receptors, Toll-like receptor-nuclear factor κB and inflammasome pathways, cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, and anti-infective proteins in TA cells. Endotoxin positivity increased with postnatal age. As compared with endotoxin-negative TAs, endotoxin-positive TAs demonstrated significantly greater tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, and serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 (SERPINE1) mRNA, and IL-10, TNF, and IL-1β protein. Expression of S100A12 protein was localized to TA neutrophils. Conclusion:: Correlation of endotoxin with TA inflammatory responses suggests endotoxin bioactivity and the possibility that endotoxin antagonists could mitigate pulmonary inflammation and its sequelae in this vulnerable population.
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