Vitamin D and HIV Progression among Tanzanian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

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Vitamin D and HIV Progression among Tanzanian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

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Title: Vitamin D and HIV Progression among Tanzanian Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy
Author: Aboud, Said; Mugusi, Ferdinand M.; Sudfeld, Christopher Robert; Wang, Molin; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

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Citation: Sudfeld, Christopher R., Molin Wang, Said Aboud, Edward L. Giovannucci, Ferdinand M. Mugusi, and Wafaie W. Fawzi. 2012. Vitamin d and hiv progression among tanzanian adults initiating antiretroviral therapy. PLoS ONE 7(6): e40036.
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Abstract: Background: There is growing evidence of an association between low vitamin D and HIV disease progression; however, no prospective studies have been conducted among adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were assessed at ART initiation for a randomly selected cohort of HIV-infected adults enrolled in a trial of multivitamins (not including vitamin D) in Tanzania during 2006–2010. Participants were prospectively followed at monthly clinic visits for a median of 20.6 months. CD4 T-cell measurements were obtained every 4 months. Proportional hazard models were utilized for mortality analyses while generalized estimating equations were used for CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Serum 25(OH)D was measured in 1103 adults 9.2% were classified as vitamin D deficient (<20 ng/ml), 43.6% insufficient (20–30 ng/mL), and 47.2% as sufficient (>30 ng/mL). After multivariate adjustment, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with increased mortality as compared to vitamin D sufficiency (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.19–3.37; p = 0.009), whereas no significant association was found for vitamin D insufficiency (HR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.87–1.78; p = 0.24). No effect modification by ART regimen or change in the associations over time was detected. Vitamin D status was not associated with change in CD4 T-cell count after ART initiation. Conclusions: Deficient vitamin D levels may lead to increased mortality in individuals receiving ART and this relationship does not appear to be due to impaired CD4 T-cell reconstitution. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the safety and efficacy of vitamin D supplementation for individuals receiving ART.
Published Version: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040036
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