Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

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Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing

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Title: Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing
Author: Owino, Claudio; Vreeman, Rachel C; Hagembe, Mildred; Njuguna, Festus; Strother, R Matthew; Gramelspacher, Gregory P; Huang, Kristin

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Citation: Huang, Kristin TL, Claudio Owino, Rachel C Vreeman, Mildred Hagembe, Festus Njuguna, R Matthew Strother, and Gregory P Gramelspacher. 2012. Assessment of the face validity of two pain scales in Kenya: a validation study using cognitive interviewing. BMC Palliative Care 11:5.
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Abstract: Background: Patients in sub-Saharan Africa commonly experience pain, which often is un-assessed and undertreated. One hindrance to routine pain assessment in these settings is the lack of a single-item pain rating scale validated for the particular context. The goal of this study was to examine the face validity and cultural acceptability of two single-item pain scales, the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R), in a population of patients on the medical, surgical, and pediatric wards of Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya. Methods: Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R were developed by standard translation and back-translation. Cognitive interviews were performed with 15 patients at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya. Interview transcripts were analyzed on a question-by-question basis to identify major themes revealed through the cognitive interviewing process and to uncover any significant problems participants encountered with understanding and using the pain scales. Results: Cognitive interview analysis demonstrated that participants had good comprehension of both the NRS and the FPS-R and showed rational decision-making processes in choosing their responses. Participants felt that both scales were easy to use. The FPS-R was preferred almost unanimously to the NRS. Conclusions: The face validity and acceptability of the Swahili versions of the NRS and FPS-R has been demonstrated for use in Kenyan patients. The broader application of these scales should be evaluated and may benefit patients who currently suffer from pain.
Published Version: doi:10.1186/1472-684X-11-5
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3393614/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10456179
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