Extracellular Vesicles and Their Convergence with Viral Pathways

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Extracellular Vesicles and Their Convergence with Viral Pathways

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Title: Extracellular Vesicles and Their Convergence with Viral Pathways
Author: Wurdinger, Thomas; Gatson, NaTosha N.; Balaj, Leonora; Kaur, Balveen; Pegtel, D. Michiel; Breakefield, Xandra Owens

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Citation: Wurdinger, Thomas, NaTosha N. Gatson, Leonora Balaj, Balveen Kaur, Xandra O. Breakefield, and D. Michiel Pegtel. 2012. Extracellular vesicles and their convergence with viral pathways. Advances in Virology 2012:767694.
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Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (microvesicles), such as exosomes and shed microvesicles, contain a variety of molecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Microvesicles appear mostly to originate from multivesicular bodies or to bud from the plasma membrane. Here, we review the convergence of microvesicle biogenesis and aspects of viral assembly and release pathways. Herpesviruses and retroviruses, amongst others, recruit several elements from the microvesicle biogenesis pathways for functional virus release. In addition, noninfectious pleiotropic virus-like vesicles can be released, containing viral and cellular components. We highlight the heterogeneity of microvesicle function during viral infection, addressing microvesicles that can either block or enhance infection, or cause immune dysregulation through bystander action in the immune system. Finally, endogenous retrovirus and retrotransposon elements deposited in our genomes millions of years ago can be released from cells within microvesicles, suggestive of a viral origin of the microvesicle system or perhaps of an evolutionary conserved system of virus-vesicle codependence. More research is needed to further elucidate the complex function of the various microvesicles produced during viral infection, possibly revealing new therapeutic intervention strategies.
Published Version: doi:10.1155/2012/767694
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3410301/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10463921
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