Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Durban, South Africa

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Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Durban, South Africa

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Title: Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis among HIV-Infected Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Durban, South Africa
Author: Hom, Jeffrey K.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Mazibuko, Matilda; Allen, Jenny; Wang, Bingxia; Walensky, Rochelle P.; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth Alan; Bassett, Ingrid Valerie

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Citation: Hom, Jeffrey K., Bingxia Wang, Senica Chetty, Janet Giddy, Matilda Mazibuko, Jenny Allen, Rochelle P. Walensky, Elena Losina, Kenneth A. Freedberg, and Ingrid V. Bassett. 2012. Drug-resistant tuberculosis among HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in Durban, South Africa. PLoS ONE 7(8): e43281.
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Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) and describe the resistance patterns in patients commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an HIV clinic in Durban, South Africa. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Consecutive HIV-infected adults (≥18y/o) initiating HIV care were enrolled from May 2007–May 2008, regardless of signs or symptoms of active TB. Prior TB history and current TB treatment status were self-reported. Subjects expectorated sputum for culture (MGIT liquid and 7H11 solid medium). Positive cultures were tested for susceptibility to first- and second-line anti-tuberculous drugs. The prevalence of drug-resistant TB, stratified by prior TB history and current TB treatment status, was assessed. Results: 1,035 subjects had complete culture results. Median CD4 count was 92/µl (IQR 42–150/µl). 267 subjects (26%) reported a prior history of TB and 210 (20%) were receiving TB treatment at enrollment; 191 (18%) subjects had positive sputum cultures, among whom the estimated prevalence of resistance to any antituberculous drug was 7.4% (95% CI 4.0–12.4). Among those with prior TB, the prevalence of resistance was 15.4% (95% CI 5.9–30.5) compared to 5.2% (95% CI 2.1–8.9) among those with no prior TB. 5.1% (95% CI 2.4–9.5) had rifampin or rifampin plus INH resistance. Conclusions: The prevalence of TB resistance to at least one drug was 7.4% among adults with positive TB cultures initiating ART in Durban, South Africa, with 5.1% having rifampin or rifampin plus INH resistance. Improved tools for diagnosing TB and drug resistance are urgently needed in areas of high HIV/TB prevalence.
Published Version: doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0043281
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3422270/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10473964
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