A novel mechanism for glycoconjugate vaccine activation of the adaptive immune system
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CitationAvci, Fikri Y., Xiangming Li, Moriya Tsuji, and Dennis L. Kasper. 2012. A novel mechanism for glycoconjugate vaccine activation of the adaptive immune system. Nature Medicine 17(12): 1602-1609.
AbstractAlthough glycoconjugate vaccines have provided enormous health benefits globally, they have been less successful in significant high-risk populations. Exploring novel approaches to the enhancement of glycoconjugate effectiveness, we investigated molecular and cellular mechanisms governing the immune response to a prototypical glycoconjugate vaccine. In antigen-presenting cells, a carbohydrate epitope is generated upon endolysosomal processing of group B streptococcal type III polysaccharide coupled to a carrier protein. In conjunction with a carrier protein-derived peptide, this carbohydrate epitope binds to major histocompatibility class II (MHCII) and stimulates carbohydrate-specific CD4+ T-cell clones to produce interleukins 2 and 4—cytokines essential for providing T-cell help to antibody-producing B cells. An archetypical glycoconjugate vaccine constructed to maximize the presentation of carbohydrate epitopes recognized by T cells is 50–100 times more potent and significantly more protective in an animal model of infection than is a currently used vaccine construct.
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