Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorMilton, Donald Kirby
dc.date.accessioned2013-04-24T20:38:01Z
dc.date.issued2012
dc.identifier.citationMilton, Donald K. 2012. What was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefense. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 2:150.en_US
dc.identifier.issn2235-2988en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10582100
dc.description.abstractThe mode of infection transmission has profound implications for effective containment by public health interventions. The mode of smallpox transmission was never conclusively established. Although, “respiratory droplet” transmission was generally regarded as the primary mode of transmission, the relative importance of large ballistic droplets and fine particle aerosols that remain suspended in air for more than a few seconds was never resolved. This review examines evidence from the history of variolation, data on mucosal infection collected in the last decades of smallpox transmission, aerosol measurements, animal models, reports of smallpox lung among healthcare workers, and the epidemiology of smallpox regarding the potential importance of fine particle aerosol mediated transmission. I introduce briefly the term anisotropic infection to describe the behavior of Variola major in which route of infection appears to have altered the severity of disease.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.en_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.3389/fcimb.2012.00150en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509329/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectsmallpoxen_US
dc.subjectbioterrorismen_US
dc.subjectbiodefenseen_US
dc.subjectvariola virusen_US
dc.subjectair microbiologyen_US
dc.subjectcommunicable diseasesen_US
dc.subjectairborne infection transmissionen_US
dc.subjectcontact infection transmissionen_US
dc.titleWhat was the primary mode of smallpox transmission? Implications for biodefenseen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalFrontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiologyen_US
dash.depositing.authorMilton, Donald Kirby
dc.date.available2013-04-24T20:38:01Z
dc.identifier.doi10.3389/fcimb.2012.00150*
dash.contributor.affiliatedMilton, Donald


Files in this item

Thumbnail

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record