PAK1 is a Breast Cancer Oncogene that Coordinately Activates MAPK and MET Signaling

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PAK1 is a Breast Cancer Oncogene that Coordinately Activates MAPK and MET Signaling

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Title: PAK1 is a Breast Cancer Oncogene that Coordinately Activates MAPK and MET Signaling
Author: Shrestha, Yashaswi; Schafer, Eric J.; Boehm, Jesse S.; He, Frank; Wang, Shumei; Barretina, Jordi; Thomas, Sapana Rachael; Du, Jinyan; Weir, Barbara Ann; Zhao, Jean J.; Golub, Todd R.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Hahn, William C.; Polyak, Kornelia

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Shrestha, Yashaswi, Eric J. Schafer, Jesse S. Boehm, Sapana Rachael Thomas, Frank He, Jinyan Du, Shumei Wang, et al. 2012. PAK1 is a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately activates MAPK and MET signaling. Oncogene 31(29): 3397-3408.
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Abstract: Activating mutations in the RAS family or BRAF frequently occur in many types of human cancers but are rarely detected in breast tumors. However, activation of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is commonly observed in human breast cancers, suggesting that other genetic alterations lead to activation of this signaling pathway. To identify breast cancer oncogenes that activate the MAPK pathway, we screened a library of human kinases for their ability to induce anchorage-independent growth in a derivative of immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLE). We identified PAK1 as a kinase that permitted HMLE cells to form anchorage-independent colonies. PAK1 is amplified in several human cancer types, including 33% of breast tumor samples and cancer cell lines. The kinase activity of PAK1 is necessary for PAK1-induced transformation. Moreover, we show that PAK1 simultaneously activates MAPK and MET signaling; the latter via inhibition of Merlin. Disruption of these activities inhibits PAK1-driven anchorage-independent growth. These observations establish PAK1 amplification as an alternative mechanism for MAPK activation in human breast cancer and credential PAK1 as a breast cancer oncogene that coordinately regulates multiple signaling pathways, the cooperation of which leads to malignant transformation.
Published Version: doi:10.1038/onc.2011.515
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