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dc.contributor.authorBaldwin, Carliss Young
dc.contributor.authorMaccormack, Alan D.
dc.contributor.authorRusnak, John
dc.date.accessioned2013-05-21T13:10:01Z
dc.date.issued2014
dc.identifier.citationBaldwin, Carliss Y., Alan MacCormack, and John Rusnak. "Hidden Structure: Using Network Methods to Map System Architecture." Research Policy 43, no. 8 (October 2014): 1381–1397. (Was Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13–093, May 2013.)en_US
dc.identifier.issn0048-7333en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10646422
dc.description.abstractIn this paper, we describe an operational methodology for characterizing the architecture of complex technical systems and demonstrate its application to a large sample of software releases. Our methodology is based upon directed network graphs, which allows us to identify all of the direct and indirect linkages between the components in a system. We use this approach to define three fundamental architectural patterns, which we label Core—periphery, multi-core, and hierarchical. Applying our methodology to a sample of 1,286 software releases from 17 applications, we find that the majority of releases possess a "core-periphery" structure. This architecture is characterized by a single dominant cyclic group of components (the "Core") that is large relative to the system as a whole as well as to other cyclic groups in the system. We show that the size of the Core varies widely, even for systems that perform the same function. These differences appear to be associated with different models of development—open, distributed organizations develop systems with smaller Cores, while closed, co-located organizations develop systems with larger Cores. Our findings establish some "stylized facts" about the fine-grained structure of large, real-world technical systems, serving as a point of departure for future empirical work.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.relation.isversionofhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733314001012en_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.titleHidden Structure: Using Network Methods to Map Product Architectureen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAuthor's Originalen_US
dc.relation.journalHarvard Business School working paper series # 13-093en_US
dc.relation.journalResearch Policyen_US
dash.depositing.authorBaldwin, Carliss Young
dc.date.available2013-05-21T13:10:01Z
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedMaccormack, Alan
dash.contributor.affiliatedBaldwin, Carliss


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