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dc.contributor.authorPerron, Gabriel
dc.contributor.authorWhyte, Lyle
dc.contributor.authorTurnbaugh, Peter
dc.contributor.authorHanage, William P.
dc.contributor.authorDantas, Gautam
dc.contributor.authorDesai, Michael M
dc.date.accessioned2013-07-02T15:41:37Z
dc.date.issued2013-07-02
dc.identifier.citationPerron, Gabriel, Lyle Whyte, Peter Turnbaugh, William P. Hanage, Gautam Dantas, and Michael M. Desai. 2015. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient Arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics. PLoS ONE 10(3): e0069533en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:10859496
dc.description.abstractUsing functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, \(\beta\)-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, \(\beta\)-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOrganismic and Evolutionary Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069533en_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.titleFunctional Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Ancient Arctic Soil Exposes Diverse Resistance Mechanisms to Modern Antibioticsen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dash.depositing.authorDesai, Michael M
dc.date.available2013-07-02T15:41:37Z
dash.affiliation.otherDepartment of Epidemiologyen_US
dash.hope.year2015en_US
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0069533*
dash.contributor.affiliatedPerron, Gabriel
dash.contributor.affiliatedTurnbaugh, Peter
dash.contributor.affiliatedDesai, Michael
dash.contributor.affiliatedHanage, William


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