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dc.contributor.authorBlock, Jason Perry
dc.contributor.authorSubramanian, S.V. Venkata
dc.contributor.authorChristakis, Nicholas Alexander
dc.contributor.authorO'Malley, James James
dc.date.accessioned2013-10-17T19:08:44Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationBlock, Jason P., S. V. Subramanian, Nicholas A. Christakis, and A. James O’Malley. 2013. Population trends and variation in body mass index from 1971 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort. PLoS ONE 8(5): e63217.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11181011
dc.description.abstractObjective: We examined body mass index (BMI) across place and time to determine the pattern of BMI mean and standard deviation trajectories. Methods: We included participants in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) Offspring Cohort over eight waves of follow-up, from 1971 to 2008. After exclusions, the final sample size was 4569 subjects with 28,625 observations. We used multi-level models to examine population means and variation at the individual and neighborhood (census tracts) levels across time with measured BMI as the outcome, controlling for individual demographics and behaviors and neighborhood poverty. Because neighborhoods accounted for limited BMI variance, we removed this level as a source of variation in final models. We examined sex-stratified models with all subjects and models stratified by sex and baseline weight classification. Results: Mean BMI increased from 24.0 kg/m2 at Wave 1 to 27.7 at Wave 8 for women and from 26.6 kg/m2 to 29.0 for men. In final models, BMI variation also increased from Waves 1 to 8, with the standard deviation increasing from 4.18 kg/m2 to 6.15 for women and 3.31 kg/m2 to 4.73 for men. BMI means increased in parallel across most baseline BMI weight classifications, except for more rapid increases through middle-age for obese women followed by declines in the last wave. BMI standard deviations also increased in parallel across baseline BMI classifications for women, with greater divergence of BMI variance for obese men compared to other weight classifications. Conclusion: Over nearly 40 years, BMI mean and variation increased in parallel across most baseline weight classifications in our sample. Individual-level characteristics, especially baseline BMI, were the primary factors in rising BMI. These findings have important implications not only for understanding the sources of the obesity epidemic in the United States but also for the targeting of interventions to address the epidemic.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063217en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3651246/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectBiologyen_US
dc.subjectPopulation Biologyen_US
dc.subjectEpidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectLife Course Epidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectSocial Epidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectMedicineen_US
dc.subjectClinical Research Designen_US
dc.subjectEpidemiological Methodsen_US
dc.subjectLifecourse Epidemiologyen_US
dc.subjectNutritionen_US
dc.subjectObesityen_US
dc.subjectPublic Healthen_US
dc.subjectBehavioral and Social Aspects of Healthen_US
dc.subjectSocial and Behavioral Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectGeographyen_US
dc.subjectHuman Geographyen_US
dc.subjectSocial Geographyen_US
dc.titlePopulation Trends and Variation in Body Mass Index from 1971 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohorten_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dash.depositing.authorBlock, Jason Perry
dc.date.available2013-10-17T19:08:44Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0063217*
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedBlock, Jason
dash.contributor.affiliatedO'Malley, James
dash.contributor.affiliatedChristakis, Nicholas A.
dash.contributor.affiliatedSubramanian, Sankaran
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-5547-1086


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