Cigarette smoke induces nuclear translocation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in prostate cancer cells: Nuclear HO-1 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion
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CitationBIRRANE, GABRIEL, HUCHUN LI, SUPING YANG, SOUVENIR D. TACHADO, and SEYHA SENG. 2013. “Cigarette smoke induces nuclear translocation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in prostate cancer cells: Nuclear HO-1 promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion.” International Journal of Oncology 42 (6): 1919-1928. doi:10.3892/ijo.2013.1910. http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2013.1910.
AbstractProstate cancer is the second leading cause of male-cancer related death in the United States. Despite a number of evidence-based studies which strongly suggest an association between cigarette smoking and prostate cancer, the underlying biological mechanism is largely unknown. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) has been implicated in maintaining cellular homeostasis, but also in tumor angiogenesis. Nuclear HO-1 protein expression has been observed in various types of tumors including prostate cancer. These studies, however, were reported as clinical and pathological observations, and failed to investigate nuclear HO-1 at the molecular level in cancer. The present study explores the relationship between cigarette smoke and nuclear HO-1-modulated promotion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion. We have demonstrated that cigarette smoke medium (SM)-induced HO-1 mRNA expression and upregulated HO-1 protein levels in the prostate cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3. We also observed that SM significantly induced nuclear expression of HO-1, and enhanced secretion of VEGF in cells. Nuclear-directed expression of HO-1 activated the transcriptional activity of VEGF and promoted VEGF secretion in prostate cancer cells. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism by which cigarette smoke-induced nuclear translocation of HO-1 promotes VEGF secretion in prostate cancer cells. Nuclear HO-1 may, therefore, constitute an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit angiogenesis and the progression of prostate cancer.
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