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dc.contributor.authorBenenson, Joyce Frances
dc.contributor.authorMarkovits, Henry
dc.contributor.authorHultgren, Brittney
dc.contributor.authorNguyen, Tuyet
dc.contributor.authorBullock, Grace
dc.contributor.authorWrangham, Richard W.
dc.date.accessioned2014-02-26T12:54:11Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationBenenson, Joyce F., Henry Markovits, Brittney Hultgren, Tuyet Nguyen, Grace Bullock, and Richard Wrangham. 2013. Social exclusion: more important to human females than males. PLoS ONE 8(2): e55851.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11800765
dc.description.abstractTheoretical models based on primate evidence suggest that social structure determines the costs and benefits of particular aggressive strategies. In humans, males more than females interact in groups of unrelated same-sex peers, and larger group size predicts success in inter-group contests. In marked contrast, human females form isolated one-on-one relationships with fewer instrumental benefits, so social exclusion constitutes a more useful strategy. If this model is accurate, then human social exclusion should be utilized by females more than males and females should be more sensitive to its occurrence. Here we present four studies supporting this model. In Study 1, using a computerized game with fictitious opponents, we demonstrate that females are more willing than males to socially exclude a temporary ally. In Study 2, females report more actual incidents of social exclusion than males do. In Study 3, females perceive cues revealing social exclusion more rapidly than males do. Finally, in Study 4, females’ heart rate increases more than males’ in response to social exclusion. Together, results indicate that social exclusion is a strategy well-tailored to human females’ social structure.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipHuman Evolutionary Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1371/journal.pone.0055851en_US
dc.relation.hasversionhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566112/pdf/en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectMedicineen_US
dc.subjectMental Healthen_US
dc.subjectPsychologyen_US
dc.subjectBehavioren_US
dc.subjectHuman Relationsen_US
dc.subjectNon-Clinical Medicineen_US
dc.subjectHealth Care Policyen_US
dc.subjectSexual and Gender Issuesen_US
dc.subjectSocial and Behavioral Sciencesen_US
dc.subjectSocial Psychologyen_US
dc.subjectSociologyen_US
dc.titleSocial Exclusion: More Important to Human Females Than Malesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionVersion of Recorden_US
dc.relation.journalPLoS ONEen_US
dash.depositing.authorWrangham, Richard W.
dc.date.available2014-02-26T12:54:11Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0055851*
dash.contributor.affiliatedBullock, Grace
dash.contributor.affiliatedBenenson, Joyce
dash.contributor.affiliatedWrangham, Richard


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