Continuous Spikes and Waves during Sleep: Electroclinical Presentation and Suggestions for Management
Chapman, Kevin E.
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CitationSánchez Fernández, Iván, Kevin E. Chapman, Jurriaan M. Peters, Chellamani Harini, Alexander Rotenberg, and Tobias Loddenkemper. 2013. “Continuous Spikes and Waves during Sleep: Electroclinical Presentation and Suggestions for Management.” Epilepsy Research and Treatment 2013 (1): 583531. doi:10.1155/2013/583531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/583531.
AbstractContinuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS) is an epileptic encephalopathy characterized in most patients by (1) difficult to control seizures, (2) interictal epileptiform activity that becomes prominent during sleep leading to an electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern of electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), and (3) neurocognitive regression. In this paper, we will summarize current epidemiological, clinical, and EEG knowledge on CSWS and will provide suggestions for treatment. CSWS typically presents with seizures around 2–4 years of age. Neurocognitive regression occurs around 5-6 years of age, and it is accompanied by subacute worsening of EEG abnormalities and seizures. At approximately 6–9 years of age, there is a gradual resolution of seizures and EEG abnormalities, but the neurocognitive deficits persist in most patients. The cause of CSWS is unknown, but early developmental lesions play a major role in approximately half of the patients, and genetic associations have recently been described. High-dose benzodiazepines and corticosteroids have been successfully used to treat clinical and electroencephalographic features. Corticosteroids are often reserved for refractory disease because of adverse events. Valproate, ethosuximide, levetiracetam, sulthiame, and lamotrigine have been also used with some success. Epilepsy surgery may be considered in a few selected patients.
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