Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania
Manji, Karim P
Kisenge, Rodrick R
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CitationLiu, Enju, Christopher Duggan, Karim P Manji, Roland Kupka, Said Aboud, Ronald J Bosch, Rodrick R Kisenge, James Okuma, and Wafaie W Fawzi. 2013. “Multivitamin supplementation improves haematologic status in children born to HIV-positive women in Tanzania.” Journal of the International AIDS Society 16 (1): 18022. doi:10.7448/IAS.16.1.18022. http://dx.doi.org/10.7448/IAS.16.1.18022.
AbstractIntroduction: Anaemia is prevalent among children born to HIV-positive women, and it is associated with adverse effects on cognitive and motor development, growth, and increased risks of morbidity and mortality. Objective: To examine the effect of daily multivitamin supplementation on haematologic status and mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through breastfeeding. Methods: A total of 2387 infants born to HIV-positive women from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and provided a daily oral supplement of multivitamins (vitamin B complex, C and E) or placebo at age 6 weeks for 24 months. Among them, 2008 infants provided blood samples and had haemoglobin concentrations measured at baseline and during a follow-up period. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentrations<11 g/dL and severe anaemia<8.5 g/dL. Results: Haemoglobin concentrations among children in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the placebo group at 12 (9.77 vs. 9.64 g/dL, p=0.03), 18 (9.76 vs. 9.57 g/dL, p=0.004), and 24 months (9.93 vs. 9.75 g/dL, p=0.02) of follow-up. Compared to those in the placebo group, children in the treatment group had a 12% lower risk of anaemia (hazard ratio (HR): 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79–0.99; p=0.03). The treatment was associated with a 28% reduced risk of severe anaemia among children born to women without anaemia (HR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.56–0.92; p=0.008), but not among those born to women with anaemia (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 0.79–1.54; p=0.57; p for interaction=0.007). One thousand seven hundred fifty three infants who tested HIV-negative at baseline and had HIV testing during follow-up were included in the analysis for MTCT of HIV. No association was found between multivitamin supplements and MTCT of HIV. Conclusions: Multivitamin supplements improve haematologic status among children born to HIV-positive women. Further trials focusing on anaemia among HIV-exposed children are warranted in the context of antiretroviral therapy.
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