The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert

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The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert

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Title: The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert
Author: Fichorova, Raina N; Buck, Olivia R; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Fashemi, Titilayo; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Bisiayo; Hayes, Gary R; Beach, David H; Takagi, Yuko; Delaney, Mary L; Nibert, Max L; Singh, Bibhuti N; Onderdonk, Andrew B

Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.

Citation: Fichorova, R. N., O. R. Buck, H. S. Yamamoto, T. Fashemi, H. Y. Dawood, B. Fashemi, G. R. Hayes, et al. 2013. “The Villain Team-Up or how Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis alter innate immunity in concert.” Sexually Transmitted Infections 89 (6): 460-466. doi:10.1136/sextrans-2013-051052. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2013-051052.
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Abstract: Objectives: Complex interactions of vaginal microorganisms with the genital tract epithelium shape mucosal innate immunity, which holds the key to sexual and reproductive health. Bacterial vaginosis (BV), a microbiome-disturbance syndrome prevalent in reproductive-age women, occurs commonly in concert with trichomoniasis, and both are associated with increased risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and viral infections, largely attributable to inflammation. To investigate the causative relationships among inflammation, BV and trichomoniasis, we established a model of human cervicovaginal epithelial cells colonised by vaginal Lactobacillus isolates, dominant in healthy women, and common BV species (Atopobium vaginae, Gardnerella vaginalis and Prevotella bivia). Methods: Colonised epithelia were infected with Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) or exposed to purified TV virulence factors (membrane lipophosphoglycan (LPG), its ceramide-phosphoinositol-glycan core (CPI-GC) or the endosymbiont Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV)), followed by assessment of bacterial colony-forming units, the mucosal anti-inflammatory microbicide secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and chemokines that drive pro-inflammatory, antigen-presenting and T cells. Results: TV reduced colonisation by Lactobacillus but not by BV species, which were found inside epithelial cells. TV increased interleukin (IL)-8 and suppressed SLPI, likely via LPG/CPI-GC, and upregulated IL-8 and RANTES, likely via TVV as suggested by use of purified pathogenic determinants. BV species A vaginae and G vaginalis induced IL-8 and RANTES, and also amplified the pro-inflammatory responses to both LPG/CPI-GC and TVV, whereas P bivia suppressed the TV/TVV-induced chemokines. Conclusions: These molecular host–parasite–endosymbiont–bacteria interactions explain epidemiological associations and suggest a revised paradigm for restoring vaginal immunity and preventing BV/TV-attributable inflammatory sequelae in women.
Published Version: doi:10.1136/sextrans-2013-051052
Other Sources: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3746192/pdf/
Terms of Use: This article is made available under the terms and conditions applicable to Other Posted Material, as set forth at http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:dash.current.terms-of-use#LAA
Citable link to this page: http://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:11855845
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