Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation
O’Shea, T. Michael
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CitationLeviton, Alan, Raina N. Fichorova, T. Michael O’Shea, Karl Kuban, Nigel Paneth, Olaf Dammann, and Elizabeth N. Allred. 2013. “Two-hit model of brain damage in the very preterm newborn: small for gestational age and postnatal systemic inflammation.” Pediatric research 73 (3): 362-370. doi:10.1038/pr.2012.188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/pr.2012.188.
AbstractBackground: We sought to disentangle the contributions of perinatal systemic inflammation and small for gestational age (SGA) to the occurrence of low Bayley Mental Development Indices (MDIs) at age 2 years. Method We measured the concentration of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood obtained during the first 2 postnatal weeks from 805 infants who were born before the 28th week of gestation and who had MDI measurements at age 2 years and were able to walk independently. Results: SGA newborns who did not have systemic inflammation (a concentration of an inflammation-related protein in the top quartile for gestational age on 2 days a week apart) were at greater risk of an MDI < 55, but not 55–69, than their peers who had neither SGA nor systemic inflammation. SGA infants who had elevated blood concentrations of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, or IL-8 during the first two postnatal weeks were at even higher risk of an MDI < 55 than their SGA peers without systemic inflammation and of their non-SGA peers with systemic inflammation. Conclusion: SGA appears to place very preterm newborns at increased risk of a very low MDI. Systemic inflammation adds considerably to the increased risk.
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