Heart Rate Dynamics after Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Middle-Aged Women: Heterogeneity of Responses
Tulppo, Mikko P.
Laaksonen, David E.
Häkkinen, KeijoNote: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationKaravirta, Laura, Madalena D. Costa, Ary L. Goldberger, Mikko P. Tulppo, David E. Laaksonen, Kai Nyman, Marko Keskitalo, Arja Häkkinen, and Keijo Häkkinen. 2013. “Heart Rate Dynamics after Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Middle-Aged Women: Heterogeneity of Responses.” PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72664. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072664. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0072664.
AbstractThe loss of complexity in physiological systems may be a dynamical biomarker of aging and disease. In this study the effects of combined strength and endurance training compared with those of endurance training or strength training alone on heart rate (HR) complexity and traditional HR variability indices were examined in middle-aged women. 90 previously untrained female volunteers between the age of 40 and 65 years completed a 21 week progressive training period of either strength training, endurance training or their combination, or served as controls. Continuous HR time series were obtained during supine rest and submaximal steady state exercise. The complexity of HR dynamics was assessed using multiscale entropy analysis. In addition, standard time and frequency domain measures were also computed. Endurance training led to increases in HR complexity and selected time and frequency domain measures of HR variability (P<0.01) when measured during exercise. Combined strength and endurance training or strength training alone did not produce significant changes in HR dynamics. Inter-subject heterogeneity of responses was particularly noticeable in the combined training group. At supine rest, no training-induced changes in HR parameters were observed in any of the groups. The present findings emphasize the potential utility of endurance training in increasing the complex variability of HR in middle-aged women. Further studies are needed to explore the combined endurance and strength training adaptations and possible gender and age related factors, as well as other mechanisms, that may mediate the effects of different training regimens on HR dynamics.
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