Biomarkers of Dairy Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis
de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.
Nettleton, Jennifer A.
Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
M. Steffen, Lyn
Rich, Stephen S.
Y. Tsai, Michael
Jacobs, David R.
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Citationde Oliveira Otto, Marcia C., Jennifer A. Nettleton, Rozenn N. Lemaitre, Lyn M. Steffen, Daan Kromhout, Stephen S. Rich, Michael Y. Tsai, David R. Jacobs, and Dariush Mozaffarian. 2013. “Biomarkers of Dairy Fatty Acids and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in the Multi‐Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.” Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease 2 (4): e000092. doi:10.1161/JAHA.113.000092. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.113.000092.
AbstractBackground: Evidence regarding the role of dairy fat intake in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been mixed and inconclusive. Most earlier studies have used self‐reported measures of dietary intake and focused on relatively racially homogeneous populations. Circulating biomarkers of dairy fat in a multiethnic cohort provide objective measures of dairy fat intake and facilitate conclusions relevant to populations with different diets and susceptibility to CVD. Methods and Results: In a multiethnic cohort of 2837 US adults aged 45 to 84 years at baseline (2000–2002), phospholipid fatty acids including 15:0, 14:0, and trans‐16:1n7 were measured using standardized methods, and the incidence of CVD prospectively adjudicated. Self‐reported whole‐fat dairy and butter intakes had strongest associations with 15:0, rather than 14:0 or trans‐16:1n7. In multivariate models including demographics and lifestyle and dietary habits, each SD‐unit of 15:0 was associated with 19% lower CVD risk (hazard ratio [95% CI] 0.81 [0.68 to 0.98]) and 26% lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk (0.74 [0.60 to 0.92]). Associations were strengthened after mutual adjustment for 14:0 and trans‐16:1n‐7 and were similar after adjustment for potential mediators. Plasma phospholipid 14:0 and trans‐16:1n‐7 were not significantly associated with incident CVD or CHD. All findings were similar in white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese American participants. Conclusion: Plasma phospholipid 15:0, a biomarker of dairy fat, was inversely associated with incident CVD and CHD, while no association was found with phospholipid 14:0 and trans‐16:1n‐7. These findings support the need for further investigation of CVD effects of dairy fat, dairy‐specific fatty acids, and dairy products in general.
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