Characterization of Respiratory and Cardiac Motion from Electro-Anatomical Mapping Data for Improved Fusion of MRI to Left Ventricular Electrograms
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CitationRoujol, Sébastien, Elad Anter, Mark E. Josephson, and Reza Nezafat. 2013. “Characterization of Respiratory and Cardiac Motion from Electro-Anatomical Mapping Data for Improved Fusion of MRI to Left Ventricular Electrograms.” PLoS ONE 8 (11): e78852. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0078852.
AbstractAccurate fusion of late gadolinium enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electro-anatomical voltage mapping (EAM) is required to evaluate the potential of MRI to identify the substrate of ventricular tachycardia. However, both datasets are not acquired at the same cardiac phase and EAM data is corrupted with respiratory motion limiting the accuracy of current rigid fusion techniques. Knowledge of cardiac and respiratory motion during EAM is thus required to enhance the fusion process. In this study, we propose a novel approach to characterize both cardiac and respiratory motion from EAM data using the temporal evolution of the 3D catheter location recorded from clinical EAM systems. Cardiac and respiratory motion components are extracted from the recorded catheter location using multi-band filters. Filters are calibrated for each EAM point using estimates of heart rate and respiratory rate. The method was first evaluated in numerical simulations using 3D models of cardiac and respiratory motions of the heart generated from real time MRI data acquired in 5 healthy subjects. An accuracy of 0.6–0.7 mm was found for both cardiac and respiratory motion estimates in numerical simulations. Cardiac and respiratory motions were then characterized in 27 patients who underwent LV mapping for treatment of ventricular tachycardia. Mean maximum amplitude of cardiac and respiratory motion was 10.2±2.7 mm (min = 5.5, max = 16.9) and 8.8±2.3 mm (min = 4.3, max = 14.8), respectively. 3D Cardiac and respiratory motions could be estimated from the recorded catheter location and the method does not rely on additional imaging modality such as X-ray fluoroscopy and can be used in conventional electrophysiology laboratory setting.
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