Role of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers
Magargee, Mary L.
Tigges, John C.
Lyons, Thomas E.
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CitationTecilazich, F., T. Dinh, L. Pradhan-Nabzdyk, E. Leal, A. Tellechea, A. Kafanas, C. Gnardellis, et al. 2013. “Role of Endothelial Progenitor Cells and Inflammatory Cytokines in Healing of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.” PLoS ONE 8 (12): e83314. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0083314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083314.
AbstractBackground: To evaluate changes in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and cytokines in patients with diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) in association with wound healing. Methods: We studied healthy subjects, diabetic patients not at risk of DFU, at risk of DFU and with active DFU. We prospectively followed the DFU patients over a 12-week period. We also investigated similar changes in diabetic rabbit and mouse models of wound healing. Results: All EPC phenotypes except the kinase insert domain receptor (KDR)+CD133+ were reduced in the at risk and the DFU groups compared to the controls. There were no major EPC differences between the control and not at risk group, and between the at risk and DFU groups. Serum stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and stem cell factor (SCF) were increased in DFU patients. DFU patients who healed their ulcers had lower CD34+KDR+ count at visits 3 and 4, serum c-reactive protein (CRP) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) at visit 1, interleukin-1 (IL-1) at visits 1 and 4. EPCs tended to be higher in both diabetic animal models when compared to their non-diabetic counterparts both before and ten days after wounding. Conclusions: Uncomplicated diabetes does not affect EPCs. EPCs are reduced in patients at risk or with DFU while complete wound healing is associated with CD34+KDR+ reduction, suggesting possible increased homing. Low baseline CRP, IL-1α and GM-CSF serum levels were associated with complete wound healing and may potentially serve as prognostic markers of DFU healing. No animal model alone is representative of the human condition, indicating the need for multiple experimental models.
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