Patient- and surgeon-adjusted control charts for monitoring performance
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CitationMaruthappu, Mahiben, Matthew J Carty, Stuart R Lipsitz, John Wright, Dennis Orgill, and Antoine Duclos. 2014. “Patient- and surgeon-adjusted control charts for monitoring performance.” BMJ Open 4 (1): e004046. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004046. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004046.
AbstractObjectives: To determine whether an innovative graphical tool for accurate measurement of individual surgeon performance metrics, adjusted for both surgeon-specific and patient-specific factors, significantly alters interpretation of performance data. Design: Retrospective analysis of all total knee replacements (TKRs) conducted at the host institution between 1996 and 2009. The database was randomly divided into training and testing datasets. Using multivariate generalised estimating equation regression models, the training dataset enabled generation of patient-risk and surgeon-experience adjustment factors. To simulate prospective monitoring of individual surgeon outcomes, the testing dataset was mapped on control charts. Weighted κ statistics were calculated to measure the agreement between patient-risk adjusted and fully adjusted control charts. Setting: Tertiary care academic hospital. Participants: All patients undergoing TKR at the host institution 1996–2009. Main outcome measure Operative efficiency. Results: 5313 procedures were analysed. Adjusted control charts were generated using a training dataset comprising 3756 procedures performed by 13 surgeons. The operative time gradually declined by 121 min with 25 years of experience (p<0.0001). Charts were tested by monitoring four other surgeons, performing an average of 389 procedures each. Adjustment for surgeon experience significantly altered the interpretation of operative efficiency (κ=0.29 (95% CI 0.11 to 0.47)), and enhanced assessment of a surgeon's improvement or diminishment in efficiency over time. Specifically, experience adjustment inverted the interpretation of surgeon efficiency from above average to below average, or from improving to declining performance. Conclusions: Adjustment for surgeon experience is necessary for accurate interpretation of metrics over the course of a surgeon's career. Patient-adjusted and surgeon-adjusted control charts provide an accurate method of monitoring individual operative efficiency.
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