Mechanisms of oligodendrocyte regeneration from ventricular-subventricular zone-derived progenitor cells in white matter diseases
Liang, Anna C.
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CitationMaki, Takakuni, Anna C. Liang, Nobukazu Miyamoto, Eng H. Lo, and Ken Arai. 2013. “Mechanisms of oligodendrocyte regeneration from ventricular-subventricular zone-derived progenitor cells in white matter diseases.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 7 (1): 275. doi:10.3389/fncel.2013.00275. http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2013.00275.
AbstractWhite matter dysfunction is an important part of many CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS) and vascular dementia. Within injured areas, myelin loss and oligodendrocyte death may trigger endogenous attempts at regeneration. However, during disease progression, remyelination failure may eventually occur due to impaired survival/proliferation, migration/recruitment, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs). The ventricular-subventricular zone (V-SVZ) and the subgranular zone (SGZ) are the main sources of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), which can give rise to neurons as well as OPCs. Under normal conditions in the adult brain, the V-SVZ progenitors generate a large number of neurons with a small number of oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, after demyelination, the fate of V-SVZ-derived progenitor cells shifts from neurons to OPCs, and these newly generated OPCs migrate to the demyelinating lesions to ease white matter damage. In this mini-review, we will summarize the recent studies on extrinsic (e.g., vasculature, extracellular matrix (ECM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) and intrinsic (e.g., transcription factors, epigenetic modifiers) factors, which mediate oligodendrocyte generation from the V-SVZ progenitor cells. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms that regulate the fate of V-SVZ progenitor cells may lead to new therapeutic approaches for ameliorating white matter dysfunction and damage in CNS disorders.
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