Alesina, Alberto Francesco, Paola Giuliano, and Nathan Nunn. 2011. “Fertility and the Plough.” American Economic Review 101 (3) (May): 499–503. doi:10.1257/aer.101.3.499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/aer.101.3.499.
This paper provides evidence that the form of agriculture traditionally practiced—intensive plough agriculture versus shifting hoe agriculture—affected historic norms and preferences about fertility, and that these norms persist, affecting observed fertility around the world today.