Metabolic and Bactericidal Effects of Targeted Suppression of NadD and NadE Enzymes in Mycobacteria
Rodionova, Irina A.
Schuster, Brian M.
Guinn, Kristine M.
Scott, David A.
Osterman, Andrei L.Note: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationRodionova, I. A., B. M. Schuster, K. M. Guinn, L. Sorci, D. A. Scott, X. Li, I. Kheterpal, et al. 2014. “Metabolic and Bactericidal Effects of Targeted Suppression of NadD and NadE Enzymes in Mycobacteria.” mBio 5 (1): e00747-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.00747-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00747-13.
AbstractABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a major cause of death due to the lack of treatment accessibility, HIV coinfection, and drug resistance. Development of new drugs targeting previously unexplored pathways is essential to shorten treatment time and eliminate persistent M. tuberculosis. A promising biochemical pathway which may be targeted to kill both replicating and nonreplicating M. tuberculosis is the biosynthesis of NAD(H), an essential cofactor in multiple reactions crucial for respiration, redox balance, and biosynthesis of major building blocks. NaMN adenylyltransferase (NadD) and NAD synthetase (NadE), the key enzymes of NAD biosynthesis, were selected as promising candidate drug targets for M. tuberculosis. Here we report for the first time kinetic characterization of the recombinant purified NadD enzyme, setting the stage for its structural analysis and inhibitor development. A protein knockdown approach was applied to validate bothNadD and NadE as target enzymes. Induced degradation of either target enzyme showed a strong bactericidal effect which coincided with anticipated changes in relative levels of NaMN and NaAD intermediates (substrates of NadD and NadE, respectively) and ultimate depletion of the NAD(H) pool. A metabolic catastrophe predicted as a likely result of NAD(H) deprivation of cellular metabolism was confirmed by 13C biosynthetic labeling followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A sharp suppression of metabolic flux was observed in multiple NAD(P)(H)-dependent pathways, including synthesis of many amino acids (serine, proline, aromatic amino acids) and fatty acids. Overall, these results provide strong validation of the essential NAD biosynthetic enzymes, NadD and NadE, as antimycobacterial drug targets.
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