Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids for Measurements of Density Using Magnetic Levitation
Bwambok, David K.
Thuo, Martin M.
Atkinson, Manza B.J.
Mirica, Katherine A.
Shapiro, Nathan D.
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CitationBwambok, David K., Martin M. Thuo, Manza B.J. Atkinson, Katherine A. Mirica, Nathan D. Shapiro, and George M. Whitesides. 2013. “Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids for Measurements of Density Using Magnetic Levitation.” Analytical Chemistry 85(17): 8442–8447.
AbstractParamagnetic ionic liquids (PILs) provide new capabilities to measurements of density using magnetic levitation (MagLev). In a typical measurement, a diamagnetic object of unknown density is placed in a container containing a PIL. The container is placed between two magnets (typically NdFeB, oriented with like poles facing). The density of the diamagnetic object can be determined by measuring its position in the magnetic field along the vertical axis (levitation height, h), either as an absolute value, or relative to internal standards of known density. For density measurements by MagLev, PILs have three advantages over solutions of paramagnetic salts in aqueous or organic solutions: (i) negligible vapor pressures; (ii) low melting points; (iii) high thermal stabilities. In addition, the densities, magnetic susceptibilities, glass transition temperatures, thermal decomposition temperatures, viscosities, and hydrophobicities of PILs can be tuned over broad ranges by choosing the cation–anion pair. The low melting points and high thermal stabilities of PILs provide large liquidus windows for density measurements. This paper demonstrates applications and advantages of PILs in density-based analyses using MagLev.
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