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dc.contributor.authorTricard, Simon
dc.contributor.authorStan, Claudiu A.
dc.contributor.authorShakhnovich, Eugene Isaacovitch
dc.contributor.authorWhitesides, George McClelland
dc.date.accessioned2014-07-03T14:53:46Z
dc.date.issued2013
dc.identifier.citationTricard, Simon, Claudiu A. Stan, Eugene I. Shakhnovich, and George M. Whitesides. 2013. “A Macroscopic Device Described by a Boltzmann-Like Distribution.” Soft Matter 9 (17): 4480.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1744-683Xen_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:12388525
dc.description.abstractEquilibrium thermodynamic phenomena such as the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities are rare in systems of macroscopic particles interacting by mechanical collisions. This paper reports a system composed of millimeter-sized polymer objects that under mechanical agitation exhibits a “discretization” of the configurations of the system, and has a distribution of the probabilities of these configurations that is analogous to a Boltzmann distribution. The system is composed of spheres and a three-link chain on a bounded horizontal surface, shaken with an aperiodic but not completely random horizontal motion. Experiments were performed at different strengths of agitation (quantified by the frequency of agitation, f, at constant amplitude) and densities of spheres (quantified by the filling ratio, FR). The chain was typically found in one of three conformations—extended, single folded, and double folded— because, under collisions with the spheres, adjacent links were stable mechanically only when fully extended or fully folded. The probabilities of the different conformations of the chain could be described by a Boltzmann distribution in which the “temperature” depended on f and the “energies” of conformations on FR. The predictions of the Boltzmann formula using empirically determined “temperatures” and “energies” agreed with measurements within two experimental standard deviations in 47 out of 48 experiments.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipChemistry and Chemical Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherRoyal Society of Chemistry (RSC)en_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1039/c3sm27385gen_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.titleA macroscopic device described by a Boltzmann-like distributionen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalSoft Matteren_US
dash.depositing.authorWhitesides, George McClelland
dc.date.available2014-07-03T14:53:46Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1039/c3sm27385g*
workflow.legacycommentsFAR 2014en_US
dash.contributor.affiliatedShakhnovich, Eugene
dash.contributor.affiliatedWhitesides, George
dc.identifier.orcid0000-0001-9451-2442


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