Burden and predictors of hypertension in India: results of SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study
Mittal, Bharati V
Keithi-Reddy, Sai Ram
Acharya, Vidya N
Almeida, Alan F
Rajapurkar, Mohan M
Shah, Bharat V
Sharma, Raj Kumar
Raju, Tatapudi Ravi
Singh, Ajay KNote: Order does not necessarily reflect citation order of authors.
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CitationFarag, Y. M., B. V. Mittal, S. R. Keithi-Reddy, V. N. Acharya, A. F. Almeida, A. C, B. HS, et al. 2014. “Burden and predictors of hypertension in India: results of SEEK (Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney Disease) study.” BMC Nephrology 15 (1): 42. doi:10.1186/1471-2369-15-42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2369-15-42.
AbstractBackground: Hypertension (HTN) is one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study was to investigate the burden and predictors of HTN in India. Methods: 6120 subjects participated in the Screening and Early Evaluation of Kidney disease (SEEK), a community-based screening program in 53 camps in 13 representative geographic locations in India. Of these, 5929 had recorded blood pressure (BP) measurements. Potential predictors of HTN were collected using a structured questionnaire for SEEK study. Results: HTN was observed in 43.5% of our cohort. After adjusting for center variation (p < 0.0001), predictors of a higher prevalence of HTN were older age ≥40 years (p < 0.0001), BMI of ≥ 23 Kg/M2 (p < 0.0004), larger waist circumference (p < 0.0001), working in sedentary occupation (p < 0.0001), having diabetes mellitus (p < 0.0001), having proteinuria (p < 0.0016), and increased serum creatinine (p < 0.0001). High school/some college education (p = 0.0016), versus less than 9th grade education, was related with lower prevalence of HTN. Of note, proteinuria and CKD were observed in 19% and 23.5% of HTN subjects. About half (54%) of the hypertensive subjects were aware of their hypertension status. Conclusions: HTN was common in this cohort from India. Older age, BMI ≥ 23 Kg/M2, waist circumference, sedentary occupation, education less, diabetes mellitus, presence of proteinuria, and raised serum creatinine were significant predictors of hypertension. Our data suggest that HTN is a major public health problem in India with low awareness, and requires aggressive community-based screening and education to improve health.
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