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dc.contributor.authorRudd, Melanie
dc.contributor.authorAaker, Jennifer
dc.contributor.authorNorton, Michael Irwin
dc.date.accessioned2014-07-18T16:07:28Z
dc.date.issued2014-07-18
dc.identifier.citationRudd, Melanie, Jennifer Aaker, and Michael I. Norton. "Getting the Most Out of Giving: Concretely Framing a Prosocial Goal Maximizes Happiness." Journal of Experimental Social Psychology (forthcoming).en_US
dc.identifier.issn0022-1031en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:12534961
dc.description.abstractAcross six field and laboratory experiments, participants assigned a more concretely-framed prosocial goal (e.g., making someone smile or increasing recycling) felt happier and reported creating greater personal happiness after performing a goal-directed act of kindness than did those who were assigned a functionally similar, but more abstractly-framed, prosocial goal (e.g., making someone happy or saving the environment). Moreover, mediation analyses revealed that this effect was driven by differences in the size of the gap between participants' expectations and reality. Compared to those who pursued an abstractly-framed prosocial goal, those who pursued a concretely-framed goal perceived that the actual outcome of their goal-directed efforts more accurately matched their expectations, causing them to experience a greater boost in happiness. Evidence that participants are unable to predict this effect, believing that pursuing abstractly-framed prosocial goals would have either an equal or greater positive impact on their own happiness, is also presented.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherElsevieren_US
dash.licenseOAP
dc.subjectgoals and objectivesen_US
dc.subjecthappinessen_US
dc.subjectgiving and philanthropyen_US
dc.titleGetting the Most Out of Giving: Concretely Framing a Prosocial Goal Maximizes Happinessen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAuthor's Originalen_US
dc.relation.journalJournal of Experimental Social Psychologyen_US
dash.depositing.authorNorton, Michael Irwin
dc.date.available2014-07-18T16:07:28Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.jesp.2014.04.002
dash.contributor.affiliatedNorton, Michael


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