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dc.contributor.authorMallarino, Ricardo
dc.contributor.authorGrant, P. R.
dc.contributor.authorGrant, B. R.
dc.contributor.authorHerrel, Antony
dc.contributor.authorKuo, W. P.
dc.contributor.authorAbzhanov, Arkhat
dc.date.accessioned2014-08-19T20:36:41Z
dc.date.issued2011
dc.identifier.citationMallarino, R., P. R. Grant, B. R. Grant, A. Herrel, W. P. Kuo, and A. Abzhanov. 2011. “Two Developmental Modules Establish 3D Beak-Shape Variation in Darwin’s Finches.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108 (10) (March 8): 4057–4062.en_US
dc.identifier.issn1091-6490en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://nrs.harvard.edu/urn-3:HUL.InstRepos:12724037
dc.description.abstractBird beaks display tremendous variation in shape and size, which is closely associated with the exploitation of multiple ecological niches and likely played a key role in the diversification of thousands of avian species. Previous studies have demonstrated some of the molecular mechanisms that regulate morphogenesis of the prenasal cartilage, which forms the initial beak skeleton. However, much of the beak diversity in birds depends on variation in the premaxillary bone. It forms later in development and becomes the most prominent functional and structural component of the adult upper beak/jaw, yet its regulation is unknown. Here, we studied a group of Darwin's finch species with different beak shapes. We found that TGFβIIr, β-catenin, and Dickkopf-3, the top candidate genes from a cDNA microarray screen, are differentially expressed in the developing premaxillary bone of embryos of species with different beak shapes. Furthermore, our functional experiments demonstrate that these molecules form a regulatory network governing the morphology of the premaxillary bone, which differs from the network controlling the prenasal cartilage, but has the same species-specific domains of expression. These results offer potential mechanisms that may explain how the tightly coupled depth and width dimensions can evolve independently. The two-module program of development involving independent regulating molecules offers unique insights into how different developmental pathways may be modified and combined to induce multidimensional shifts in beak morphology. Similar modularity in development may characterize complex traits in other organisms to a greater extent than is currently appreciated.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipOrganismic and Evolutionary Biologyen_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dc.relation.isversionofdoi:10.1073/pnas.1011480108en_US
dash.licenseLAA
dc.subjectcraniofacial evolutionen_US
dc.subjectevolvabilityen_US
dc.subjectvariabilityen_US
dc.subjectevolutionary developmental biologyen_US
dc.subjectnatural variationen_US
dc.titleTwo developmental modules establish 3D beak-shape variation in Darwin's finchesen_US
dc.typeJournal Articleen_US
dc.description.versionAccepted Manuscripten_US
dc.relation.journalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciencesen_US
dash.depositing.authorAbzhanov, Arkhat
dash.waiver2011-02-07
dc.date.available2014-08-19T20:36:41Z
dc.identifier.doi10.1073/pnas.1011480108*
workflow.legacycommentsFrom Waiver Tableen_US
dash.authorsorderedfalse
dash.contributor.affiliatedAbzhanov, Arkhat
dash.contributor.affiliatedMallarino, Ricardo
dash.contributor.affiliatedHerrel, A


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