136 HIV-1 Nef regulates activity of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin
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CitationJennelle, Lucas, Ruth Hunegnaw, Larisa Dubrovsky, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Michael L. Fitzgerald, Dmitri Sviridov, and Michael Bukrinsky*. 2014. “136 HIV-1 Nef regulates activity of endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin.” Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999) 65 (Suppl 2): 57. doi:10.1097/01.qai.0000446716.85972.b0. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000446716.85972.b0.
AbstractHIV-1 Nef promotes viral replication by downmodulating a number of cell surface transmembrane proteins, such as CD4, MHC-I and MHC-II, which are targeted by Nef to various degradation pathways. Nef is also responsible for downregulation of cellular cholesterol transporter ABCA1, and this effect contributes to development of atherosclerosis in HIV infected patients. Surprisingly, in contrast to CD4 and MHC I, to which Nef has to bind to exert downregulation, binding to ABCA1 turned out to be unnecessary for inactivation of ABCA1 by Nef. Here, we identified a novel mechanism by which Nef influences activity of host cell and viral proteins. We show that Nef interacts with an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin, which is essential for folding and maturation of glycosylated proteins. Nef disrupts calnexin interaction with ABCA1, thus impairing functionality of this protein, but increases affinity and enhances interaction of calnexin with gp160, promoting maturation and functionality of viral Env proteins. Knock-down of calnexin lead to reduced fusion activity of HIV-1 envelope and reduced virion infectivity, as well as to defective cholesterol efflux, which is mediated by ABCA1. However, gp160 and ABCA1 interacted with calnexin differently: while gp160 binding to calnexin was dependent on glycosylation, interaction of ABCA1 with calnexin was glycosylation-independent. Therefore, Nef binds to calnexin and stimulates interaction between calnexin and gp160 at the expense of ABCA1 and probably other ER proteins. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for previously unexplained effect of Nef on functionality of ABCA1, and suggest a mechanism for upregulation of HIV infectivity by Nef through stimulation of Env maturation.
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